Young Immigrants to Canada

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Children In The News

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The Montreal Transcript, Tuesday, May 16, 1865
First Arrival of Emigrants.
On Saturday, about 80 stout and healthy looking girls arrived here by the steamer from Quebec, having been passengers to this country by the steamship St. David, now in port. They were taken in charge of by Mr. Daly [sic], the emigration agent, and by him forwarded to their several destinations. [Similar item in Montreal Witness, May 17, 1865.]

The Montreal Transcript, Friday, May 26, 1865
Those Emigrants.–The young women who were sent out to this country from Ireland by the Poor Law Guardians, and who lately arrived in Montreal, turn out to be thoroughly degraded characters–worthy graduates of those Government schools of vice, the Irish workhouses. Shortly after the arrival of these women we heard it reported that they had proved to be very abandoned persons, and the report of their disreputable conduct is now confirmed by the Reverend Mr. O’Brien, chief manager of the St. Patrick’s Home. In a communication to the Editor of the Quebec News –sent, no doubt, in answer to inquiries–the Reverend gentleman states that the conduct of these pauper emigrants was disgraceful above anything he ever witnessed. “So shocked,” says the News, “were the Nuns who lent their charitable aid to relieve these creatures, that Mr. O’Brien fears that they will hardly ever be induced again to aid emigrants sent from a Union Workhouse. Mr. Daley [sic], the Emigration Agent in Montreal, describes these women as a most incorrigible and profane set. Some of them he provided with situations; but in a day or two they returned, drunk. Their habits were such as could not be tolerated in respectable families. Some eighteen remain in Montreal; the others are distributed over the country.” Some of these women, we have been informed, sold nearly all the little clothing they possessed, and with the proceeds not only visited different taverns in the city and drank with the male loungers whom they there met, but committed crimes of a much more serious character. In one respectable tavern they called at their conduct was so bad that they had to be expelled, and nobody who had heard of them would take them in. The periodical deportation to Canada of the refuse of the populations of English, Scotch and Irish cities must be put a stop to, and the sooner our Government take the matter in hand the better for the morals of the country. Says our Quebec contemporary:–“In particular, it becomes the head of the Emigration Department to take this subject into his own personal care. But while it is his duty to initiate precautionary rules, it is no less the duty of his colleagues actively to sustain him. We must have a moral quarantine, some reasonable guarantee for the character of those who are sent here from workhouses. We have been nauseated with Emigration Reports, which have dropped still-born from the printer. But here is a phase of emigration which neither official indolence nor indifference can be permitted to overlook. Mr. Buchanan may pile remonstrance on remonstrance; but till the Government second his efforts all his protests are but wasted breath. If our emigration system be little more than a negative benefit, let it not at least be converted into an active agency of evil. The morality of a country is as important as its money.–???nts regard it as infinitely more so. Against this wholesale exportation of vice from the workhouses to Canada, there is no security, except our rulers take up the subject and make it matter for legislation.”

The Montreal Witness, Saturday, July 22, 1865
Sending Pauper Girls To Canada.
What is to be expected from girls, or women, or men, brought up as most of our paupers are, in almost idleness, in ignorance, in the knowledge that, work or play, they are not only sure of food, lodging, and clothing, at the expense of ratepayers, but of receiving means to take them out of the country when a certain period has arrived? The effect of such things upon poor, neglected, ill-associated, and ill-trained pauper girls is easily imagined; and after knocking about in one of those floating hells called emigrant ships, even those who have been better brought up are very badly prepared to meet the crowning temptations of extreme destitution in a foreign land. The topic is an exceedingly unpleasant one to dwell upon, but truth must be told, or more victims of economy will be sacrificed, to the ruin of many immortal souls and of the population of our country.–Limerick Reporter.


The [Toronto] Globe, October 31, 1868
Female Emigration.
To the Editor of the Times.
Sir,–Once more I trouble you with my acknowledments. [sic] Since writing I have received the following sums for my work. Mr. and Mrs. Saundors, £2 2s; Gratitude, from Melbourne, £5; H. and A. Smart, £1; M.B.R., £1; Two Lancashire Men, $60; L.N. (stamps), 5s; H.B., £1; Colonel Pinney, £5; Hon. Mrs. Way, £1 5s; Anon., £1; and 25 copies of “Last Days.” Clothes, too, have reached me from Mrs. Gibbs, Miss Creive, Mrs. Wilson, and Lady Dowling.
Yours faithfully,
Maria S. Rye.
418 Strand, London, W.C.


The [Toronto] Globe, Tuesday, February 2, 1869
Assisted Emigration
Assistance to the individual in emigrating, must, as in every thing else, in order to its becoming really a blessing, be only carried so far. All that can be done and all that ought to be attempted, to simply to help men to help themselves. Those who are prepared to have their lives turned into a new channel, and in a new land, must lay their account, in any case, with a good many hardships and difficulties, and in the midst of these, must, under Providence, look chiefly to themselves for counsel, decision and action. Others may do something, and ought and will, and that something, by no means unimportant. They may advise and so far assist, but the weight of work and responsibility must rest with the emigrants themselves. It has too often been the case that those ....

The [Toronto] Globe, Saturday, April 17, 1869
Miss Rye’s New Scheme
From extracts from the London papers published elsewhere, it will be seen that Miss Rye has launched the scheme to which we referred last year for bringing out young children to Canada and placing them out in the families of farmers. We heartily approve of this scheme as likely to relieve the pressure upon the poor rates and the purses of the charitable in England, while it will add to the population of Canada. The children will be readily taken into families and, removed from their old associations, will grow up good members of society.
Miss Rye’s New Emigration Scheme
(From the Pall Mall Gazette.)
Miss Rye is going to try the experiment of deporting the street arabs of London and other large towns to Canada and the Western States. She is encouraged to make the experiment by the success which has attended the labors of Mr Van Meter, who claims to have received 2,000 children from the slums of New York, and to have given them a fair start in the West. Miss Rye is prepared, she says, to start with a party of children for the West about August.

The matter was pressed upon her attention by both press and people in America. They said–“You talk of your poverty.......

The [Toronto] Globe, Thursday, June 21, 1869
Miss Rye
This indefatigable lady arrived once more in Toronto yesterday afternoon, at two o’clock. She was accompanied by upwards of eighty young women, whom she has brought out, with a view of ......

The [Toronto] Globe, Tuesday, July 26, 1869
Miss Rye
We learn by telegram received last evening that Miss Rye left Montreal yesterday by boat for this city with one hundred and thirty children and twenty young women. We understand forty of the children were intended for St. John, N.B. but Miss Rye had not a responsible matron to send with them, and could not go herself. She therefore brings them all to Ontario, and will supply St. John in October.

The [Toronto] Globe, Thursday, October 20, 1869
Latest From Montreal...
Miss Rye is expected here again early in November with another lot of young emigrants.

The Times, Saturday, October 29, 1869
Gutter Children.
To The Editor Of The Times.

Sir,–Before leaving England for Canada with my first party of orphan children, please allow me to acknowledge receipt of the following moneys, &c., for above charity:–Roseleaf, 5s.; by Mrs Griffith, 1l. 7s.; Mrs. Crovden, 5l.; Mrs. Saxby, 5l. Hon. Mrs. Wilbraham, 5l.; Friends, by ditto, 1l. 7s.; Mrs. Webb, 5l.; Friends, by ditto, 12s. 6d.; Mrs. Waring, 2l. 2s.; Rev. J.A. Kershaw, 1l. 1s.; Mrs. Owen, 2l.; Mrs. Brandreth, 2l. 2s.; Miss Barron, 1l.; Mr. E. Mensgrave, 3l. 3s.; Mr. J.H. Wigley, 1l.; Miss Welsby, 10s.; A Friend, 2s. 6d.; Mrs. C. Palmer, 10s.; Mrs. H. Pearce, 10s.; Mrs. G. Cooke, 1l.; Mrs. Roberts, 10s.; collected by Mr. G. Pearce, 1l. 4s.; ditto by Mr. S.P. Lyon, 2l. 2s.; ditto by Miss Warmop, 2l. 2s.; L.S., 5s.; Miss Runshaw, 1l. 1s.; Friends, by ditto, 10l.; Miss Martin, 10s.; Friends, by ditto, 1l.; Miss Fairhurst, 2l. 2s.; Friends, by ditto, 4l. 13s. 6d.; Three Little Girls, E., N., A.C., 4s.; F. G., 1l. 1s.; Harry Lawrence, 1l.; Hon. H.S. Cave, 5l.; Marquis of Cholmoodeley, 5l.; Mr. W. Dent, 5l.; Mr. C. Woodward, 5l.; Mrs. Engal, 1l.; Minnie, 1s.; Xampier, 2s. 6d.; Mr. A. Lerische, 1l.; P.D.R., 5l.; Mr. Noble, 10l.; Mr. Dagmore, 5l. I have to acknowledge, with many thanks, parcels of clothes, both old and new, from Mrs. Colonel Wray, “Hollington,” Mrs. Milner, Miss Ogilvy, Mrs. Blake, Mrs. Ward, Mrs. Jenner; also grants of Bibles from the Bible Society, Red Lion-square; Band of Hope Reviews from the publisher; 6l. worth of books from the Tract Society, and 10l. ditto from the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. Yours very faithfully.
Maria S. Rye.
418, Strand, London.


[With news about the troubles in the Red River Settlement, troop movements and Fenian rumours taking up much of the space in the newspaper of 1870 there was little space for the stores of the child immigrants. These are a few that did make it.]

The [Toronto] Globe, April 23, 1870
Miss Rye’s Emigration Scheme
(To the Editor of the London Times)

Sir–I came to you this time last year asking for pecuniary assistance to enable me to carry some of our orphan waifs (girls) to Canada and the Western States of America, where I believed I could find good and comfortable homes for many of our perishing and neglected children. I wish again to-day to give an account of my experiences, and to tell what has befallen the 70 little ones who in answer to my appeal were confided to my care last October. My most sanguine expectations have been realised. Every child has a home, and I have 100 more and similarly good homes offered for as many more children as soon as ever I can return to England to fetch them.

The health of the children has been wonderfully good, neither medicine nor medical advice has been required. I am thankful to say that I have found the children affectionate, obedient and grateful, and the Kirkdale (Liverpool) Industrial School children, from where, indeed, I drew my largest numbers, proved capital workers, reflecting the greatest possible credit on the teachers and managers of the school.

I feel I owe an apology to my many supporters, and above all to those friends who placed children in my care, for my long silence; but I was scarcely here before I found I must make my choice between writing reports about the probabilities of my success and doing the work. Those who know me best will not be surprised at my choice; to those who do not know me I can only say I feel I have worked beyond my strength, and am only grateful that I am able to write this report myself at all.

But the work is grounded, is rooted, it is blessed of God, and accepted by the people; the worst difficulties are overcome, and, after a little rest, I look forward hopefully to the future. At any rate, any moderately sensible woman can now carry it on and make this small beginning a great blessing to thousands of our perishing children.

I cannot speak too highly of the care and attention we received on board the Hibernian from Captain Smith, his officers and crew, on our voyage out, nor of the warm welcome and kindnesses we received from the people of Niagara on our arrival here. All that I could have hoped for, and more than I could have expected from neighbours, they did for us; and I am deeply indebted to the ladies of this township, to the Mayor, and above all, to Mr. And Mrs. Robert Ball, for their persistent and self denying assistance and co-operation.

Should all be well, I hope to be in England about April, prepared to enter more fully into the details of the work, starting for Canada again the end of May with another party of little emigrants to fill the vacant home waiting for them here.
Yours very faithfully,
Maria S. Rye.
“Our Western Home,” Niagara, Canada West, March 17.

Quebec Mercury, May 6, 1870
Liverpool, May 5.
The steamer Scandinavian, which sailed to-day, took out a cargo of London “arabs,” or street boys, for Canada, where they will be provided with homes.

Quebec Mercury, May 16, 1870
Mail Steamship Inwards.–The ss. Scandinavian, from Liverpool, with 53 cabin and 886 steerage passengers, the mails and a general cargo, passed Father Point at 9.20 this morning, and may be expected in port about midnight. She was detained 24 hours by fog.

Quebec Mercury, May 17, 1870
Shipping Intelligence.
SS Scandinavian, Ballantine, Liverpool, May [no date] Allans, Rae & co., mails, 919 pas and gen cargo for Quebec and Montreal.

Maritime News.
Captain Ballantine, of the s.s. Scandinavian report having been detained 34 hours by fog. Also, passed the following vessels:–May 12th, s.s. Anglia, lat 42 2, long 49 10, bound east. 14th, bark Star of Newcastle, lat. 46 50, long 57 30, bound west. 15th, s.s. Prussian, off Gaspe, bound east. 16th, s.s. St. David, and s.s. Germany, off Matan, bound east; bark Montreal and ship Louis off Green Island, bound west; s.s. Medway, at anchor off Brandy Pots, bound east; also, s.s. Gaspe, and bark Norden, bound west; bark Tadmor off Point Diable, bound west; brig Mary, and ships Craigs and Charger do; ships Cherokee, Tornado, Harvest Home, and British Trident, off Point Aird, bound west. Several ships off Green Island. Mr. Louis M. Lavoie, pilot of the steamship, reports 32 vessels between Father Point and Green Island; from Green Island to the Light Ship 17, the bark Caroline at St. John’s Point; the s.s. Ganges at Quarantine; a bark beating down above Bic; a ship at anchor at Hare Island, outward; s.s. Medway at Brandy Pots, outward bound; pilot schr. No. 2, at Crane Island, and the David Price at the east end of Green Island, both outwards.

Per ss Scandinavian, Ballantine, from Liverpool,–Mr White, Mr Jenner, Mrs Jenner, Mr Jenner, Col Moffatt, Miss Parker, Mr Robinson, Mr Phillips, Mr A Kerr, Mrs Kerr, child and nurse, Mr Walter Scott, Mr Crossman, Mr Jonas, Mr Beckett, Capt Stevenson, Mr Haigh, Mr Fortescue, Mrs Fortescue and 3 children, Mr Dean, Mr Welch, Mr and Mrs Ray, Revd Mr Roux, Mr Sutherland, Mr Fraser, Mr Dickenson, Miss Fox, Mrs Gough and 2 children, Mr Bulger, Mr Owen, Mr Grigson, Mr and Mrs Pinchin, 4 children and 2 servants, Miss Pinchin, Mr Mathers, Mr Atkinson, Mr Bradley, Mr Humphreys, Mr Cunningham, Mr Murphy, 53 cabin and 866 steerage passengers.

The [Toronto] Globe, Wednesday, May 25, 1870
Latest From Quebec.
May 24.
The s.s. Peruvian arrived early this morning. Among her passengers were Miss Macpherson and 100 London street arabs, sent to this country through that lady’s charity.

Quebec Mercury, May 26, 1870
Port of Quebec, Arrived.
SS Peruvian, Smith, Liverpool, May 12, Allans, Rae & co., mails, 685 pas and gen cargo for Quebec and Montreal.
*** Per ss Peruvian, Smith, from Liverpool,–Mr G.W. Barrow, Mr J Cook, Lieut Buller, Dr and Mrs Sewell, Mr Jas Reid, Mr H.S. Stevens, Mr Hoy, wife, and child, Mrs Fisher, Miss Georgina Smith, Capt Dundas, Capt Caldron, Miss Gillespie, Miss Evatt, Mrs M’Duff, Miss M’Duff, Mr Fry, Mr Wilson, Mr Hopkins, Mr Robert Greenless, Mr Denman, Mr Berthelot, Mr Wenman, wife and seven children, Mr Kenwick, Mr Walker, Mr Jenkins, Mrs Jenkins, Mr F Coleman, Mr A Taylor, Mr Colignon and wife, Mr Kennedy, wife, 2 children and infant, Mr O’Brien and wife, Mr Kroef and wife, Mr W.A. Griffiths, Mr F.C. Eastwood, Mr H. Phillip, wife and child, Miss Macpherson, Miss Belbrough [sic], Mr Gabbett, and 727 steerage passengers.

The [Toronto] Globe, Friday, May 27, 1870
Of the 102 boys who arrived at Quebec per steamship Peruvian on Saturday last twelve have remained at Richmond, twenty-five have been provided for by Mr. Daley, the Government immigration agent here, and the remainder leave by the train this evening for Toronto. [Note: This item states the party arrived on Saturday at Montreal. They arrived at Quebec, as stated above, on Tuesday, May 24.]

Quebec Mercury, May 30, 1870

Latest From Lower Ports. Father Point, May 30.
The mail steamer Nova Scotian passed inwards at 11.15 p.m., yesterday, with 618 steerage passengers. The ss. Moravian arrived here at 9 a.m., to-day; with 50 cabin and 778 steerage passengers. A two masted steamer, with a funnel in the centre, passed inwards at 7.30 p.m., yesterday, also 7 ships and 5 barques yesterday. The ss. Scandinavian passed outwards at 10.30 last night. Weather clear and warm; hazy on the river; wind south-west.

Quebec Mercury, May 31, 1870
Port of Quebec, Arrived May 30.
SS Moravian, Brown, Liverpool, May 19, Allans, Rae & co., mails 828 pas and gen cargo for Quebec and Montreal.


Quebec Mercury, Saturday, April 8, 1871
Immigration.–The Allan ship Pomona has sailed from Liverpool, with between 700 and 800 emigrants for Quebec.

Quebec Mercury, Monday, April 17, 1871
Passengers per steamship Prussian, from Portland [to Liverpool], Saturday, 15th April:–Brown, Quebec; Mr. And Mrs. A. Allan, Master Allan, and man servant, the Misses Bond, Messrs. Meilleur, G.S. Henry, G.M. Farlane, F. M’Eldery, A. Anderson, and W. Wood, Montreal; Judge Boswell, Mrs. Demsford, and Mrs. H. Demsford, Cobourg; W.J. Merritt, St. Catherines; J. Atkinson, New London; R. Williams, Kingston; B. M’Near, and A.A.M. Innes, Boston; S. Beattie, and Mrs. Weeks, and two children, Portland; Captain Cochrane, St. John, N.B.; F.C. Eastweed and son, Mrs. J.J. Humphries, and Miss Rye.

Quebec Mercury, Tuesday, April 18, 1871
Miss Rye sailed on the 15th inst., for England, to bring to Canada another 100 girls. The last lot she brought are nearly all settled, either for a term of years or by adoption in respectable families in the different parts of this country. Earl de Grey and Sir S. Northcote, members of the High Commission at Washington, have promised Miss Rye to visit her “Home” before they return to England.

Quebec Mercury, Monday, April 24, 1871
By telegraph from Father Point we learn that the s.s. Peruvian, of the Allan’s line, passed that place at 2.10 this afternoon. She may be expected in port at five o’clock to-morrow morning. S.S. Ottawa passed at 5.30, may be expected about noon tomorrow.
Montreal, April 22.
The Ship “Lake Superior,” from Liverpool, which arrived here to-day, brought out thirty families, comprising weavers, shoemakers, cabinetmakers, printers, and farm hands. Mr. Daly, Emigration Agent at this port, to whom they were intrusted, has succeeded in disposing of all of them in and around Granby.
Latest From Lower Ports.
Father Point, April 24–8 a.m.
Weather cloudy and mild; light southwest wind. Thermometer 34.
First Mail Steamer Inwards.–The ss. Peruvian, from Liverpool on the 13th, arrived at 2.10, with 45 cabin and 506 steerage passengers.
6 p.m.
The ss. Ottawa arrived at 6 p.m.

Quebec Mercury, Tuesday, April 25, 1871
Per ss Ottawa, Archer, from Glasgow,–Mr Douglas, Mrs Douglas, Mr Anderson, Mrs Anderson, Miss Anderson, Coll Anderson, Miss J. Anderson, Miss M. Anderson, Miss A. Anderson, Jas Anderson, Walter Anderson, Mr Jas Strahan, Wm Strahan, Miss M Strahan, Henry Strahan, Mr Burness, W. Ronald, Wm Dunlop, Mr David Simpson, Miss Jane Malcolm, Miss Jane Soutier, D.G. Lawson, R. Easson, Wm Robertson, Jno Miller, Wm Ore, Robt Forbes, John Goldie, Robt Martin, Miss Mahon, Mr W. Bowen, Mrs Bowen, Patrick White, John Graham, Miss Marion Grogan, Mr James Ennis, and 340 steerage passengers.
The SS Ottawa, Capt. Archer, from Glasgow, April 11, arrived in port at 9 o’clock this morning. She brings 276 passengers, and a general cargo for Quebec and Montreal.

Quebec Mercury, Wednesday, April 26, 1871
Latest From Lower Ports.
Father Point, April 26–1 p.m.
S.S. European, from Liverpool, arrived at 9.30 a.m., with 617 steerage passengers.

Quebec Mercury, Thursday, April 27, 1871
S S European, Bouchette, Liverpool, April 13, Allans, Rae & co. 617 pas and gen cargo for Quebec and Montreal.

Quebec Mercury, Friday, April 28, 1871
Maritime News.
The ss. European, April 16, passed a bark rigged steamship bound east. 23rd, bark Thornhill, bound west. 25th, bark Flora, bound up; ship Medora, off Cape Rosier, ditto.; ship Pomona, off Frigate Point, ditto. 26th bark Chevalier, above Bic, and ship Royalist, off Trois Pistoies, both bound up, and about 10 other vessels between Cape Rosier and Quebec.

Quebec Mercury, Saturday, April 29, 1871
Arrived April 28.
Ship Pomona, Bruce, Liverpool, April 5, Allans, Rae & co., 319 pas and gen cargo for Montreal.

Quebec Mercury, Tuesday, May 2, 1871
Arrived, May 2.
S S Moravian, Brown, Liverpool, April 20, Allans, Rae & co, 761 pas and gen cargo for Quebec and Montreal. [arrived at 6.15 a.m.]
Per ss Moravian, Brown, from Liverpool–Mr H Aylmer, Mr J Lepeatt, Mr J Noble, Mr J Noble, jr, Mr Laycock, Mr C.H. Chapman, Mr Glover, Major Shrapnel and lady, Mr E Shrapnel, Miss Edith Shrapnel, Miss Helena Shrapnel, Mr and Mrs W Shrapnel, and two children, Mr Gilmour, Mr Sidey, Mr and Mrs Howard, Miss Howard, Mr Dyer, Mr Thomson, Lieut-Col Ready and lady, 2 children and nurse, Mr Grimmett, Mr E Blackley, Miss Sarson, Miss Beaumont, Mr Wright, Mr Sarage, Mr J.A. LeContin, Mr J Baline, Mr Buckley, Mr A Collas, Mr J Collas, Mr and Mrs Smith and 2 children, Lord Turnour, The Honble[sic] Keith Turnour, Mr Eccles, Miss Eccles, Revd C Chapman, Mrs Chapman, 4 children and nurse, Miss Wilkes, Mr George Beattie, Mr E Austin, Mr John Harris, Rev Mr Bryant, Mrs Bryant, Mr Beckett, Miss Vandin, Mr J.P. Clark, Mr M Clark, Mr J.T. Fullerton, Mr Newby, Mr S.C.D. Clark, McKisby–68 cabin, 60 intermediate and 633 steerage passengers.

Quebec Mercury, Thursday, May 4, 1871
Arrived, May 4.
S S Medway, Harris, London, Ross & co., gen cargo and 524 passengers.

Quebec Mercury, Friday, May 5, 1871
Arrived.–The ss. Medway, Capt. Harris, from London, April 14, arrived in port at 8.30 a.m., yesterday. She brings 7 cabin, 524 steerage passengers, and a general cargo for Quebec and Montreal. After discharging her Quebec cargo at the Commissioners’ wharf, she left port for Montreal. The steerage passengers were all left at Grosse Isle, there having been three cases of small-pox on board.

Quebec Mercury, Saturday, May 6, 1871
Mail Steamship Arrived.–The Allan steamship Caspian, Captain Ritchie, from Liverpool, April 25, passed Father Point at 10.45 a.m., to-day, with 813 passengers; all well. She will arrive in port this evening. This is the fastest passage to Quebec this season. [It was overcast and mild; light east wind.]

Quebec Mercury, Monday, May 8, 1871
Mail Steamship Inwards.–...The ss. Caspian, Capt. Ritchie, with 813 passengers–all well–arrived in port at 11.35 p.m. on Saturday. She sailed from Liverpool, 1 p.m., 26th ult., and encountered head winds almost throughout the passage, notwithstanding which, she has made the run inside of ten days and a half. The Caspian is one of the spare boats of the mail line of the Montreal Ocean Steamship Company, is 3,000 tons register, has splendid cabin accommodation, and will always be a favorite vessel. She is to sail as an extra steamer for Liverpool on the 13th instant.

Quebec Mercury, Friday, May 12, 1871
The seventy-five emigrants who arrived in Ottawa city on Wednesday, under the care of their pastor, the Rev. Mr. Fletcher, were all immediately supplied with lucrative employment. The Citizen says:–“To show the astonishing demand for labor in this part of Canada, we may mention that Mr. Wills, emigration agent here, has applications for two thousand more, to whom employment and good wages will be given as fast as they arrive.”

Quebec Mercury, Monday, May 15, 1871
Arrived, May 15.
S S Prussian, Dutton, Liverpool, May 4, Allans, Rae & co., 1,096 pas and gen cargo for Quebec and Montreal.
Mail Steamship Arrived.–The Canadian mail steamship Prussian, Lieut. Dutton, R.N.R., from Liverpool, May 4, arrived at 11.30 a.m., with 69 cabin, 1,027 steerage passengers, the mails and a general cargo. Reports passing ss. Moravian, off St. Louis River, at 9 a.m., and ss. Caspian off Point des Monts, at 2 p.m., yesterday, both bound east. Amongst the passengers in the Prussian are Miss McPhersons party, of 150 children.
Per ss Prussian, Dutton, from Liverpool–Major Sheatfield, Capt Ward, Mr E.G. Price, Mr E.J. Price, Mr D.T. Fraser, Mr J.D. Gibb, Mr and Mrs A.W. Ogilvie, Mr and Mrs H. Wallis, Mr. B.H. Plumptre, Mr C Roy, Miss Macpherson, Miss Merry, Dr. Parnell, Mr St. George, Mrs M. Carter and child Miss Allen, Mr James Gibb, wife, and 2 servants, Mr J.G. Darling, Mr J.D. Gemmell, Admiral Coffin, Mr R.W. Shepherd, Mr Bond, Mrs and Miss Taunton, Mr A Chapman, Mrs James, Mrs M.A. Coombes, Mr Wilkinson, wife, and child, Mrs Forbes, 2 children and servant, Mr Buchanan, Miss Skinner, Miss Lowe, Mrs Eaton and 3 children, Mr Freeman, wife, and child, Messrs James Morris, C.M. Harvey, F Rogers, J.J. Field, Gormley, Warnick, Pillon, Hobb, Merry, Thom, W. Howard, McCall, W.T. Rock, H Collinson, J Ferguson, L Dooner, Mr and Mrs Gibson, Dr Perrigi,–69 cabinand 1,027 steerage passengers.

Quebec Mercury, Monday, May 22, 1871
Arrived, May 22.
S S Nestorian, Aird, Liverpool, May 11, Allans, Rae & co., mails, 855 pas and gen cargo for Quebec and Montreal.
Mail Steamship Arrived.–The s.s. Nestorian, Capt. Aird, from Liverpool, May 11, arrived in port at half-past three o’clock this afternoon, with the mails, 47 cabin, 808 steerage passengers and a general cargo for Quebec and Montreal.

Quebec Mercury, Tuesday, May 30, 1871
Steamships Arrived.–The Canadian mail steamship Scandinavian, Capt. Ballantine, from Liverpool May 18, passed Father Point at noon yesterday, [temperature 53°F] and arrived in port about four o’clock this morning, with 67 cabin and 937 steerage passengers and a general cargo for Quebec and Montreal. The Scandinavian anchored at the mouth of the River St. Charles until boarded by the port physician. The ss. Niger, Capt. Nesbitt, from London, May 12, arrived in port at 3 p.m., yesterday [May 29], with 10 cabin and 519 steerage passengers and a general cargo for Quebec and Montreal
Per ss Niger, Nesbitt, from London–Mr Gouter, Mr Chapman, Mr Luttleby, Mr Fowler, Captain Campbell, Mr Shewin, Misses Cronie, (2), Mr McClellan, Miss McClellan–10 cabin and 519 steerage passengers.

Quebec Mercury, Monday, May 22, 1871

The [Toronto] Globe, Monday, July 3, 1871
Miss Rye and Female Pauper Children
The following letter from Miss Rye....



The [Toronto] Globe, Tuesday, February 18, 1873
Great Britain
Miss Rye’s Emigration Home

The Halifax Evening Reporter, Monday, August 25, 1873
Arrival of Small Immigrants.
Mrs. Birt came out in the Hibernian with her 76 children, and early on Sunday morning Col. Laurie despatched the girls to the St. Paul’s Girl’s Industrial School, and the boys to the Protestant Industrial School in two large spring waggons which Mr. Fishwick most liberally and thoughtfully sent to convey the children. It was a pleasing and yet amusing sight to see the little things, some of whom are quite small, “falling in two deep,” and “closing by the side step,” and going through other military evolutions with as serious an air as if they were soldiers on duty. They are a hearty, happy looking lot of children, evidently devoted to Mrs. Birt, and ready to spring at her slightest nod. They will prove a welcome acquisition to many a Nova Scotian house, and we trust that this is but the advanced guard of a large importation of the same sort. The children sang a short hymn very prettily and very earnestly before leaving the wharf. We understand that the girls will be allotted next Wednesday, and the boys on Thursday. Mrs. Birt will remain during her stay at Col. Laurie’s, 109 Morris Street.
Per Hibernian, from Liverpool, G. B., and Queenstown: – Mr Reid, J.R. Davidson, Mrs Dalton, Mr and Mrs Mrs [sic] Lyon, Andrew B. Boak, Miss L. Owen, Miss Emma Graham, Mr. Edwards, Mr Reddy, Capt Pritchard, Mrs M.A. Minchen, Master C. Minchen, 3 children, Mrs. Birt, Miss Davis, W.S. Marry [sic], Capt R.L. Dashwood, Mr, Mrs and Miss Kelly, Lieut R.C. Davies, Mr Woolrich, Sergt and Mrs Helps and 3 children, Geo Foster, Capt Miles, Mr Carse, 50 boys, 20 girls and attendant in charge of Miss Birt....[note: it is extremely rare for the children to be mentioned in this way.]

The Halifax Evening Reporter, Tuesday, August 26, 1873
Mrs. Birt’s Children.
We learn that Mrs. Birt will allot the girls brought out by her at the St. Paul’s Almshouse of Industry, Tower Road, at 10 a.m., to-morrow, Wednesday, and that the boys will also be allotted at the Boys’ Industrial School, Quinpool Road, on Thursday the 28th instant, at 10 a.m.
Destitute Children.
A meeting was held at Argyle Hall this afternoon, when addresses were delivered by Mrs. Birt and others interested on the subject of mission work among destitute children, and juvenile emigration. Mrs. Birt’s party of children were present. There was a large attendance of ladies and gentlemen.

The Halifax Evening Reporter, Wednesday, August 27, 1873
Colonel Laurie acknowledges with many thanks the undermentioned contributions in aid of the expenses of Mrs. Birt’s children:–Rev’d Jacob Layton, Lewisdale, $3; a friend, $5; Mrs. Bourdillault, $4; John S. MacLean, Esq., $20; Rev’d D. MacRae, (Hopewell), $5. Also, Mr. Fishwick’s liberality in furnishing two large express waggons to convey the children and their baggage to the Industrial School, and declining to make any charge for them.

The Halifax Evening Reporter, Saturday, August 30, 1873
Colonel Laurie acknowledges with many thanks the receipt of the undermentioned sums in aid of the expenses of Mrs. Birt’s children: Sir Wm. Young, $15; A.G. McDonald, Esq., W.U.T. Office, $4; John Logan, Esq., $5; J.W. Copeland, New Glasgow, $4.

The Halifax Evening Reporter, Tuesday, September 2, 1873
Immigrants for Oakfield.
Among the passengers per Hibernian in her last voyage from Liverpool to this port were three more families of English agricultural laborers, who were brought out by Colonel Laurie to work on his estate at Oakfield. The three families have amongst them seventeen children. No wonder that they seek this land of promise where food is comparatively cheap and work is plenty. If Oakfield goes on increasing at its present rate, we shall soon hear that its inhabitants have applied for an act of incorporation.

The Halifax Evening Reporter, Wednesday, September 3, 1873
The Children.
There was an article in yesterday’s Colonist which deserves more attention than is usually given to an editorial on the topics of the day. It treated of the claims of little children, and while fully approving and cordially seconding the efforts of Col. Laurie to bring in among us homeless English children, the claims of our own little waifs were pressed. It is estimated that at least fifty little ones die in this city annually from starvation in the hands of “nurses.” There is a class of women who take charge of babies at very low rates, and then feed and tend them in such a way as to save money. Wretched mothers, anxious to conceal their guilt, dispose of their little ones to unpitying “Charlotte Winsors” who starve them. Our contemporary urges that something should be done by the benevolent to save these poor victims of sin and shame and greed. For our own part we believe that fifty is entirely too low an estimate of the children that perish in this city every year through want and ill-usage.

The Halifax Evening Reporter, Saturday, September 6, 1873
Col. Laurie acknowledges with many thanks, the receipt of the undermentioned donations, in aid of the expenses of Mrs. Birt’s children:–S.J. Baras, Esq., $5; Joseph Weston, Esq., Wolfville, $4; B.S., Paradise, $5; Capt. T.J. and, [sic] Halifax, $5.

The Halifax Evening Reporter, Monday, September 15, 1873
Colonel Laurie acknowledges with many thanks the following contributions in aid of the expenses for receiving and distributing Mrs. Birt’s party of children:–B.B. Bond, Esq., Halifax, $5; Hiram Blanchard, Esq., M.P.P., $5; E.C. Morrison, Esq., $5; John Fraser, Esq., Glengarry, $5.

The Halifax Evening Reporter, Tuesday, October 21, 1873
Per Hibernian from Halifax to Liverpool, GB–Mr Webb, wife and daughter, Mrs Hallett, Mrs Doane and child, Mrs Stather and 3 children, Miss McNutt, Mrs G. Blaiklock, R. Honley, Lieut L. Fanshaw, John King, Mr. Morrison, H. Hayden, Rev D. Macrear, Wm Cruikshank, Capt Suthervell, Capt Sidell, E. Coulter, J.B. Currie, Capt Swale, RE; S.N.C.J. Robinson, Mrs Birt and child, P. Woodgate, A. Gilpin, 48 and 2 in steerage–50. [note: Mrs. Birt and child – who is this child?]


The Halifax Evening Reporter, Monday, April 20, 1874
Steamer Notes.
The R.M.S. Nova Scotian, from Liverpool, G.B., arrived a [sic] 7 a.m.
The English Children.
Mrs. Birt, with nearly eighty sturdy little boys and girls, arrived in the “Nova Scotian” this morning, the children all aged from 4 to 16. Colonel Laurie and Dr. Clay met Mrs. Birt, and at once sent off the children to the lodgings provided for them. They will be distributed in a few days.
Weather Report.
9 A.M. 40° - Wind North a.m., fair; South p.m., cloudy.


The [Toronto] Globe, Saturday, October 2, 1875
Juvenile Immigration



The [Toronto] Globe, Tuesday, August 21, 1877
Latest by Telegraph
Pauper Emigration to Canada, ...





The [Toronto] Globe, January 20, 1881
William Hutchins, who was brought to gaol yesterday on the charge of stealing $8 from Mr. Allen Hedley, of Lobo, in whose house he had stopped over night, was this morning brought before Judge Elliot for examination. He pleaded guilty, and elected to be tried summarily. Mr. Gibbons, of the Middlemore Home, appeared on his behalf, and asked that his trial be postponed, and the boy handed over to his charge. This was granted, W. Hutchins and H. Gibbons entering into reconizances for the boy’s appearance when wanted. [This is most likely William Hutchins, arrived May 8, 1876 on the Sardinian.]



The Manitoba Daily Free Press, Tuesday, April 10, 1883
Great Britian.
Pauper Emigration.

Dilke, President of the Local Government Board, says the Board would not oppose the emigration of paupers’ children to Canada, as the Government of that country had undertaken to provide for their reception.









The Winnipeg Free Press, Thursday, April 30, 1891
And Still They Come.
Six Hundred Immigrants Arrive by the Sardinian–Some for the Northwest.

Montreal, April 29,–The steamship Sardinian which arrived here yesterday, brought out nearly six hundred immigrants. Some of them who seemed to be in comfortable circumstances, went to the Northwest and British Columbia, but a large number remain in Montreal and will be given work in this province. Farm hands are in great demand at present. Among the messengers [sic] were 51 boys and girls in charge of representatives of the Salford Catholic Protection and Rescue society. These children will be placed in service in different parts of the provinces. There were also 250 boys in charge of a representative of the Church of England Immigration society.

The Winnipeg Free Press, Friday, June 26, 1891
Barnardo’s Homes.
Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting-Statement by the Doctor.

Canadian Gazette: The Marquis of Lorne presided last week at the 25th anniversary of the above named institution, which was held in the Royal Albert hall. The report showed that out of the 17,122 boys and girls received at the homes during the last twenty-five years, 4,563 have been sent out to the colonies. £10,000 is now wanted to meet certain liabilities, and to provide a capital upon which the institution can rely. Dr. Barnardo made a statement, in the course of which he caused to be produced, on a special platform, representations of the workshops and the boys and girls at work in them, at Stepney Causeway and elsewhere; a nursery, and the “raw material” as they entered the home, among whom was a party of youths going to Canada this week.

The Winnipeg Free Press, Wednesday, July 15, 1891
Qu’Appelle Station.
A Cricket Match at the College–Engaging in Clerical Work.

Qu’Sppelle Station, July 13.–On Saturday a cricket match came off at St. John’s college, the English agricultural students v. the school, but as on the previous Saturday the pupils of the school were defeated. The Rev. F.A.G. Eichbaun, warden of St. Edward’s, West Malvern, England, is staying at St. John’s college on his return home from Calgary, and preached at St. Peter’s pro-cathedral on Sunday. The rev. gentleman is well-known in the Northwest as a great promoter of emigration from England of boys suitable for farm laborers and house servants. This is his fifth visit to Canada, where he thinks the harvest prospects look better than on any previous occasion.

Mr. F.W. Johnson, well-known as a successful farmer in Assinaboia, but who has been studying for some time past at St. John’s college, is temporarily assisting the Rev. W. Nicolls in the work of the school.

Mr. Main, an agricultural student, gave an interesting lecture in St. John’s college on Saturday, the subject being a voyage in an old-fashioned sailing vessel from Glasgow to New Caledonia and Australia. He graphically described the little known French penal settlement, and on the return voyage skirted the coast of America from Buenos Ayres to Newfoundland.

The Winnipeg Free Press, Friday, August 7, 1891
The Barnardo Home.
A Peep at the Garden of the Institution.

Shellmouth, Aug.4.–Your correspondent yesterday visited the Barnardo Home. This institution is certainly an honor to our province. Very few have any conception of the amount of labor and money expended here for the good of London’s unfortunate children. I would like to speak of the commodious and beautiful buildings, the extensive fields of wheat, oats and barley, of the young men who attend instruction; but I will only try and give a faint idea of what the garden looks like. On entering the gate, I was at once reminded of the public gardens in the east, such as one might see in Montreal or in Boston. The Barnardo garden is certainly more fruitful, while it is also a garden within a garden. It contains twenty-five acres and is divided off into sections by beautiful walks, adorned on either side with limestone and all kinds of flowers. The visitor need not alight from his carriage, for he can drive along certain avenues that command a good view of the whole garden. It is a grand scene. There is the mangle peach melon, water melon, garden melon, tomato, citron, cucumber, jumbo squash, chinarose radish, lettuce, tobacco plant, sweet sugar cane, rhubard, red rufus cabbage; different varieties of all these along with acres of other ordinary garden produce. All this with a fair sprinkling of fruit trees, maple trees, and flowers, tends not only to make this garden fascinating and useful, but it also demonstrates to us what the Manitoba soil and our climate are capable of producing under the supervision of such men as Mr. Struthers, general manager, and Mr. Wilkinson, gardener of the Barnardo Home.

The Winnipeg Free Press, Tuesday, August 11, 1891
The Barnardo Home.
The Tenant System Is Inaugurated–The Plan on Which It Is Worked.

Mr. E.A. Struthers, manager of the Barnardo farm at Russell, is in the city for the purpose of taking back for trial the youth Oates, who is accused of stealing sundry articles from one of the tenants of the farm. Mr. Struthers informed a reporter yesterday that the tenant system had been inaugurated on the farm this year. It was proposed to place young men who had been instructed in the Barnardo homes on Government homesteads, assistances being advanced them on suitable security, to begin operations with. Arrangements with the Government not having been completed in time, it was decided at the request of two of the young men to allot a certain acreage on the Russell farm for the use of those graduates who were thought capable of complying with the conditions made. A quarter section each was placed at the disposal of the two young men in question, and they were advancing everything necessary to begin with, excepting a yoke of oxen which they had to buy with their savings. They are also allowed $1.50 per acre for breaking, and are giving all the work they can do about the farm at reasonable wages. In return they have to give half the produce of their farms to management of the home. These two young men will have fifty acres each ready for crop next year. Mr. Struthers says that it has not yet been decided how far this system will be extended, as the acreage of the home farm is limited.



The [Toronto] Globe, Tuesday, November 21, 1893
Not A Barnardo Boy.
The Youthful Manitoba Murder Did Not Come From The Barnardo Home.

A despatch appeared in the papers yesterday morning stating that a fourteen-year-old lad named Hill had been sentenced to death .....


Manitoba Morning Free Press, April 5, 1894
Manager Struthers, of the Barnardo farm, will establish a creamery at Rapid City, if the farmers encourage the project. The factory will collect the cream at all distances beyond four miles; those living near will have to bring in their cream. Farmers must use the deep-set cans. Mr. Struthers will pay cash every month for the cream. The price will be the same as storekeepers pay and will average about 15 cents per pound for butter the year round.

Manitoba Morning Free Press, April 10, 1894
Immigrants Arriving.
A Large Party Reaches Halifax, Including 300 [sic] Barnardo Boys.

Halifax, April 9.–The Dominion line Sarnia, with the weekly mails, arrived this evening from Liverpool. She had heavy weather all the way across, and experienced a gale yesterday and last night. The Sarnia brought 700 passengers, the largest number yet this year. Over 500 of these were immigrants, including 200 [sic] boys for homes in Ontario and Manitoba. They came from Barnardo’s refuges in England, and are under the charge of Rev. Mr. Wallace.

The [Toronto] Globe, Friday, October 5, 1894
Lord and Lady Aberdeen visited the Barnardo Home at Russell yesterday.

The [Toronto] Globe, Saturday, October 27, 1894
The Barnardo Boys.
Interesting Converation With the Canadian Agent.
What Becomes of The Boys.
Only a Small Percentage Fall Into Crime.

Very Few Lads Lost Sight of–The Demand to Excess of the Supply–Assistance From the Dominion.
In connection......

The [Toronto] Globe, Wednesday, November 14, 1894
A Sensation Exploded.
An Immigrant Boy Disappears in the County of Wellington, but is Found Safe and Sound at Hespeler.

Arthur, Nov. 12.–(Special.)–Considerable surprise and not a little curiosity was aroused in this vicinity a couple of days ago by the appearance in a local weekly of a paragraph to the effect that a young English lad from one of the immigration homes, who had been indentured to a farmer of Luther Township, had mysteriously disappeared some months ago, and that recently portions of a human body had been found in a rubbish heap on the farm burnt and charred beyond possibility of identification. The surprise was caused by the absence of any previous knowledge of the “horrible tragedy” in the district, and the curiosity was to discover how, when, where and by what means, so remarkable a yarn came to be manufactured out of the whole cloth. The matter would not, however, have excited interest for more than a few hours but for the fact that a day or two later a Toronto paper reproduced the paragraph as a “special” from Guelph; and this being brought to the attention of Crown-Attorney Peterson, he caused some inquiry to be made, which quickly set the affair at rest. Your correspondent also took a hand in the investigation, and, as so much publicity has already been given to the story, the facts as briefly given below will be of interest.

About a year and a half ago Mr Thomas Waters, a farmer in comfortable circumstances, owning and working a 200-acre farm on the seventh concession of Luther, on the confines of the little hamlet of Damascus, about eight miles northeast from this town, procured a twelve-year-old lad named John E. Sanders from the Barnardo Home in Toronto. Mr Waters had previously had a boy from the same institution, but he ran away after being there a short time, and the management of the home were so throughly satisfied that the runaway had not been improperly treated that they sent young Sanders to take his place, without further expense to Mr Waters. According to Mr Waters’ own statement Sanders got along all right for a time, until about three or four months ago, when he seemed to get lazy and indifferent to his work, and finally, early in August, a serious misunderstanding arose between them over some ploughing, which the farmer claims to believe the boy was wilfully careless over, and the result was that Waters struck him a couple of times over the shoulder with the butt end of a whip he was carrying. Mr Waters declares that this was the first and only time he had laid a hand upon the lad, but it so angered Sanders that the next day he ran away to a neighbor’s, and only went back upon compulsion. The farmer, however, decided he would have nothing more to do with him and wrote to the home to that effect, and on August 24 he was returned to Toronto, under instruction from the superintendent.

To catch the train young Sanders had to leave Damascus very early in the morning, before most of the good people were up, and as no one saw him leave his subsequent non-appearance started the gossips, and in a short time the weird and blood-curdling narrative mentioned above was flying about the country. Thomas Bishop, the local constable, heard the rumors about a week after the boy left, and at once did the most sensible thing possible under the circumstances, vis., wrote to the home to inquire and in a few days got a reply to the effect that everything was all right. This he quickly made known among the neighbors, but the first story had got too good a start, and, though it was discredited in the immediate vicinity, and would long ere this have been forgotten. It continued to travel abroad, until, as stated above, it struck a Toronto newspaper office.

So much for the “disappearance,” but the story of the “burnt and charred remains” is not traceable to this source, and, inasmuch as there has not been a burnt heap of any description on the Waters farm this fall, it must be concluded that there was not for this picturesque addendum even the slight foundation that the rest of the story had.

The [Toronto] Globe, Tuesday, November 27, 1894
News of the Day.
The Allan Steamer Laurentian, which arrived at Halifax, N.S., yesterday from Liverpool, was the first weekly mail boat of the season to that port. Amongst her passengers were 171 boys from Dr. Barnardo’s Home for Toronto and Peterboro’.


The [Toronto] Globe, Saturday, April 13, 1895


The [Toronto] Globe, Thursday, May 23, 1895
A Barnardo Boys’ Journal Established.
The Canadian Manager of Barnardo’s Home for Boys, Mr. A.B. Owen, has decided to publish a monthly journal, which, it is hoped, will not only help to maintain the interest in and oversight over the 6,000 boys who have come to Canada under the auspices of Dr. Barnardo and their old friends, but which will also prove of value to the boys in many other ways. Special attention in promised to those subjects consideration of which will aid the boys in their vocation, a very large majority being imployed in agricultural pursuits. The editorship of Ups and Downs, the title of the proposed journal, has been entrusted to Frank Vipond, a gentleman favorably known in journalistic circles, who will produce the first issue early in July.

Manitoba Morning Free Press, August 1, 1895
City News

A party of ten girls, in the charge of Miss Turnbull, passed through the city yesterday from England on their way to enter the service of farmers in the west.

The [Toronto] Globe, Thursday, August 29, 1895
Mr. Ernest Heaton, B.A., has republished under the title of “Canada’s Problems” a number of contributions made to The Week some time ago. An idea of the scope of these essays may be gathered from the titles of the various chapters, as follows:–The Ontario Educational System,” “Tariff and Colonization,” “Colonization a Practical Science,” “Comparative Colonization,” “Government Colonies,” “The Gentlemen Colonist,” “Canada v. Barnardo et al.,” “Assisted Immigration,” “Colonial Clubs.”


The [Toronto] Globe, Friday, April 24, 1896
Trades and Labor Council
A Record of Legislation in the Interest of Labor at the Recent Session of the Legislature
With President Robert Glockling in the chair .....

The [Toronto] Globe, Tuesday, August 4, 1896
Barnardo Girls Coming
Peterboro’, Aug. 2–(Special)–A party of girls is expected to arrive in Dr. Barnardo’s Girls’ Home there from England about August 10th. Ages ranging from nine to seventeen years.

The [Toronto] Globe, Saturday, August 15, 1896
James Hendy, a Barnardo boy, employed on a farm in West Zorra, committed suicide. He first cut his throat with a razor and then threw himself into a pond.

The [Toronto] Globe, Monday, August 31, 1896
The Hendey Case.
Some days ago a telegraph item was published in a number of newspapers stating that James Hendey, a Barnardo boy, eighteen years of age, had committed suicide at West Zorra. In order to get information as to the statement of the young man being a lad brought out by Dr. Barnardo, the Immigration Department wrote to Mr. Alfred B. Owens of Toronto, who has charge of the Barnardo Homes, and that gentleman replied in these words: “I beg to inform you that we have no boy on our books of the name of James Hendey, and that the person referred to in the paragraph quoted is incorrectly described as a Barnardo boy, and is not in any way connected with these institutions.”

The [Toronto] Globe, Wednesday, September 23, 1896

The [Toronto] Globe, Tuesday, October 13, 1896
Schools Need Not Accommodate Barnardo Boys.
Trial Court.
Before Ferguson, J.

Hall v. Trustees of Union School Section Two of Stisted.–Judgment in action tried at Bracebridge. The plaintiff Frederick Hall, a boy of thirteen, resides in defendants’ school section with his next friend in the action, George Spiers, under the


The [Toronto] Globe, July 12, 1897
Orphan Homes of Scotland
Mr. William Quarrier of Glasgow, Their Founder, Describes the Great Work in Which He is Engaged.

The pulpit of the Centennial Methodist Church, Bloor street, was occupied yesterday forenoon by Mrs. Barrass of Boston, who gave an interesting address upon the influence of motherhood in connection with organized charitable work. Mr. Joseph Tait conducted the preliminary exercises.

In the evening Mr. Tait again appeared in the pulpit, having as his assciate [sic] Mr. Wm. Quarrier of Glasgow, whose name is dear to Scotchmen all over the world as the founder of the Orphan Homes of Scotland. It is probable that Mr. Quarrier would be disposed to decline this title, insisting that the great institution in question had been manifestly founded by God through his humble instrumentality. The history of the homes formed the subject of Mr. Quarrier’s remarks, and certainly it would be hard to find in the realm of romance a tale more wonderful and absorbing than the narrative of sober fact told by this unassuming and prosaic Scot. Having experienced great privations in his early youth, Mr. Quarrier resolved while yet a boy to do something if permitted for the orphans of his native land. This resolution was still strong in his heart at maturity, which found him a prosperous Glasgow merchant in the boot and shoe line. He was already deeply interested in the work amongst the bootblacks of the great city, and was only awaiting the answer to earnest prayer for the sum of £20,000 before entering upon his cherished project for the orphan children. At this juncture he was profoundly struck by the expression of a friend, who said, “Why don’t you go on with the work and trust God?” He had supposed he was trusting God, but these words opened his eyes to what real faith implied. He resolved accordingly to act upon the inspiration, and at once set to work, establishing the foundation of the first home, after great difficulty, in the upper loft of an old rag shop in a poor part of the city. Looking upon the work of God’s own, he decided to ask for no aid directly or indirectly from man, and down to this day–23 years from that date–he has never done so. Yet year by year money and provisions have come to him without fail–never too little and never a surplus. At the present time the homes consist of 52 buildings, including church and school, two hospitals and other necessary buildings situated in a beautiful estate of some forty acres at the Bridge of Weir, about sixteen miles from Glasgow. The entire property is free from debt, for it has been the invariable rule to “pay as they go.” By this noble agency 11,000 orphan children have been saved and set on the road of life with the equipment of a good moral and Christian training, and of these 4,100 have been happily settled in Canada, where many have been married and are amongst the best citizens. Not one per cent. have turned out badly. Fourteen years ago Mr. Quarrier was led to relinquish his private business, and since that time he has given himself wholly to the work, which bids fair to go on spreading and growing in its glorious power. A better answer to the sceptics it would be hard even for theological Scotland to frame than the unvarnished tale thus told.

The [Toronto] Globe, August 28, 1897
Child Immigration
The Act of Last Session Under Criticism
Mr. Quarrier’s Position
An Explanation From Premier Hardy
The Pioneers in the Movement–Record of the Brockville and Other Homes For Scottish Children
(To the Editor of The Globe.)
Sir,–On March 31 of this year there was put on the statute books of Canada a law for regulating the immigration into Ontario of certain classes of children which is anti-British in its enactments and alien in its character. It lays hold on a voluntary Christian work supported by British money and puts it under the control of a Government which does not contribute one cent towards its upkeep. It prohibits any philanthropic individual or society from bring into Ontario a child under eighteen years of age without a license from the Government, while at the same time any immigrant–criminal or otherwise–may enter the country with his children. Is this Canadian fair play in dealing with British subjects? It gives to societies bringing out children power to control them until eighteen years of age, when any other British child of fourteen can choose its own place of residence without the control of parent or guardian. This part of the new act is entirely at variance with British and Canadian law, and there are other clauses equally so. Without condemning the author of the bill or the Parliament that made it law, I say without fear of contradiction that it was hastily enacted, and is the most inquisitorial law that was ever put on the statute books of a British colony.

Twenty-seven years ago Miss Annie McPherson of London, England, brought the first party of children into Canada. I followed a year later, and Mrs. Birt of Liverpool joined us soon after. Miss McPherson established three homes, at Galt, Belleville and Knowlton, for the reception of children on their arrival, and as centres for placing them out. She retained the Galt home for London children, gave the one at Knowlton to Mrs. Birt and set apart the Belleville home for Scotch children. Ten years ago we opened the Fairknowe Home, Brockville, for placing out the children from the orphan homes of Scotland, leaving Marchmont Home, Belleville, to Mr. And Mrs. Wallace. In twenty-seven years, we, who were the pioneers of the movement, have brought into Canada about 15,000 children and young people, whom we have trained and tested, and the results show that not two per cent. have ever become criminal or chargeable to any municipality, and the annual death rate is only 4 per 1,000. Many of them are now heads of families, some are teachers, ministers, missionaries, servants, etc., and we know of no other agency that has accomplished more lasting good. We have ever held ourselves responsible for every one we brought out, and where failure has come we have returned them to the old land. We have spent hundreds of thousands of dollars in conducting this work and have never asked the Government at home or here to help us financially. It has been carried on in dependence on God and it a purely voluntary and religious movement. We hold tenaciously that the Government has no right to interfere with religious work which it does not support and that before framing this law we who have spent our money, time and energies in furthering the welfare of the land to which we have brought our children should have been consulted. Instead of that this new stringent law was passed before we were made aware that such a measure was thought of. We feel that we have been injustly treated, and that an unmerited stigma has been put upon our work. After my arrival here in June, I put myself in communication with the Premier of Ontario to see if the law could be amended in such a way as not to interfere with our principles as voluntary Christian workers, but so far there seems to be no other course open but to refrain from bringing out children until the law is amended.

Some Correspondence
The following correspondence will show the position we have taken up, and I trust the friends of Christian work, and the churches of Canada will see that the voluntary work which has blessed many Canadian homes and many a Scotch child is not hindered:–

“Brockville, 19th July, 1897
“The Hon. A.S. Hardy, Premier, Toronto, Ontario.
“Sir,–I write you in regard to the matter about which I had an interview with you and your colleagues on July 6. Having arranged to go home early in August I wish to have from you a statement to lay before the public in Scotland regarding the conditions on which we may bring out Scotch children for settlement in Ontario. I am not prepared to accept a ‘license’ under the terms of the new act, which I consider interferes in an unfair way with a desirable class of immigrants. Is it not possible for your Goverment by an Order-in-Council to delay the carrying out of the act in September and to have it remodelled in such a way as not to place unnecessary burdens on voluntary work such as ours, which has conferred such benefits on the country. In the past twenty-six years we have placed out about 4,800 children and young people, not one of whom, as far we know, is chargeable on the rates of any community. We have spent hundreds of thousands of dollars for immigration work in this country, and it seems to me we deserved to be taken into consideration in the drawing up of the act. I will submit to the strictest examination before embarkation, and will give a written guarantee for every child we bring out that it will not be allowed to become chargeable to any municipality; and I think this should meet the whole case, and such a course would show that our twenty-six years’ labors for the good of this country have not been forgotten by the Government. I have the honor to be, sir, yours faithfully,
(Signed) Wm. Quarrier.”

“Department of Attorney-General, Toronto, July 19, 1897.
“Wm. Quarrier, Esq., Scottish Home for Children, Brockville, Ont.
“Dear Sir,–In adopting the act regulating the immigration of children, the Legislature of the Province had no desire or intention of unduly hampering a good work such as yours. The Scotch are well known as a most desirable class of settlers, and from all we have heard of your good work, both in Scotland and this country, we have confidence that you would only bring the best class of children, even though no law existed on the subject. But with so many agencies engaged in the placing of British children in Ontario, it was felt to be imperative that some regulations should be adopted whereby careless or mere money-making work could be put a stop to. As you doubtless know, there is a strong public prejudice against the importation of children, owing partly to the work of placing and supervising not having been properly attended to by some of the agencies. This it is hoped will be remedied to some extent under the new law. As you can readily comprehend on a little reflection, it would be absolutely impossible to discriminate in law between one agency and another. But so far as it can be done by departmental regulation, every consideration will be shown to your Brockville home and agents. There is no provision whereby the application for Government recognition of the work could be avoided, but this need not be considered as in any sense derogatory to the great benevolent and Christian work in which you are engaged. Mr. Kelso, who will have the direction of this department, will always be prepared to co-operate with your representatives, and his object is the same as yours, viz., the protection of these children from cruelty and neglect. While there is no provision under which special exemption could be granted to your work, I would urge you in the general interests of this movement to comply even at personal sacrifice, with the terms of the act, and thus aid not only in the full protection of the children, but in assuring the Canadian public that every precaution is being taken to guard against the moral or physical deterioration of our people. I am, dear sir, yours very truly,
(Signed) Arthur S. Hardy.”

The above letter from the Premier shows clearly that there are no charges made against our individual work, and our withdrawal for the present is intended as the strongest protest against the framing of such an act to gratify the clamor of certain individuals. We do not claim to have brought angels into the country, nor do we place them amongst angels, but we do assert that the thousands brought here will bear favorable comparison with any number or class of Canadian-born, in physical, moral, mental and spiritual power.
Wm. Quarrier.
Brockville, July 31.



The [Toronto] Globe, April 25, 1899
In Quarantine
Young Immigrants Detained at Leeside [sic] Junction
Had Been Subjected to Infection From Scarlet Fever–Health Officers Acted With Promptness
A C.P.R. car containing 48 lads just arrived from England was stopped and side-tracked at Leeside Junction at 7 o’clock last night and placed under strict quarantine. The lads were destined for the Fegan Boys’ Home, 295 George street, this city. The young immigrants reached Quebec yesterday, and on examination there one of them was found to be ill with scarlet fever. He was detained and sent to the hospital, but the rest of the party were allowed to proceed on their journey. Dr. Bryce of the Provincial Board of Health was communicated with in the meantime and made aware of the circumstances. He promptly notified the local Health Department. Prof. Shuttleworth, who is taking charge of affairs in the absence of Dr. Sheard, the city’s Medical Health Officer, wrote to Dr. Bryce stating that the circumstances demanded that the whole party be stopped en route and quarantined. The note was delivered to Dr. Bryce, who happened to be at the City Hall with a deputation. After a brief consultation he and Prof. Shuttleworth left the hall and boarding a convenient train stopped the incoming train at Leeside, where, as stated, the car containing the boys was side-tracked.

It was found on examination that no member of the party had developed any symptoms of the fever, but having been subjected to infection, it was decided that they should be quarantined for ten days, the usual period in such cases. The lads, who are in charge of Mr. George Greenway, Superintendent of the local Fegan Boys’ Home, will receive proper attention during their detention, and the greatest possible care will be taken to prevent any spread of infection. The usual precaution of fumigation and disinfection will be carried out. The C.P.R. authorities rendered the medical health officers every assistance in grappling with the emergency.

The local authorities do not think that Toronto should be saddled with the expense of the quarantine holding that the Provincial department should deal with it and, if possible, recover in part from Quebec.

The [Toronto] Globe, April 26, 1899
The Leaside [sic] Quarantine
The Provincial authorities will bear the expense of the forty-eight lads who are in quarantine at Leaside Junction, and notified the city Health Department to that effect yesterday. The lads, as stated in yesterday’s Globe, are on board a sidetracked C.P.R. car. They are newly arrived from England, and were on their way from Quebec to the Fegan Boys’ Home in this city, when stopped at Leaside by Dr. Bryce, Provincial Health Officer, and Prof. Shuttleworth of the local Health Department. None of the present party is ill, but as all were during their voyage to Quebec liable to infection from scarlet fever, which resulted in one of the original party being detained at the city named.


The [Toronto] Globe, Saturday, February 25, 1905 Lally Bernard's London Letter
The Pauper Children Emigration Scheme

On February 10th, 1899, Lampman, the great nature poet of Canada, passed to his long rest, leaving us memories which are immortal, poems which as the years go on will grow to be part and parcel of our national life. How truly he was imbued with the "spirit of the soil" can only be realized by those who always seek for some reflection of beautiful woodland scenes in the songs of the poets. Not long ago the writer wandered through a lovely English wood, and as usual sought in a volume of Lampman's poems for some picture which was identical with the experience. But in all that volume of poems there was not one verse which it was possible to regard as a verbal picture of the English woodland in winter, so true, so subtle were all the descriptive lines. Early spring, late autumn, one would have thought, might have brought some answering chords. They did not. The "spirit" of the Canadian soil was all-pervading, growing stronger by contrast as one scanned familiar lines. Not only as a great nature poet will Lampman be recognized; the sonnets "Outlook," "Music," "Knowledge" and "Sight" will all stand as a creed for the coming race. Nothing can be more in touch with Watts' great warning in the picture called "Progress" than that conveyed by Lampman's high charge to his countrymen:–
Not to be hampered by these headlong days,
But to stand free; to keep the mind at brood
On life's deep meaning, nature's altitude
Of loveliness and time's mysterious ways.

There is one charge continually brought against the average Canadian by those who admit their keenness, their energy, and their splendid self-reliance; with all these qualities, they are superficial, and it is just because they do not remain "unhampered by these headlong days." They are not "free," and have not those qualities which make them study "life's deep meaning, nature's altitude of loveliness and time's mysterious ways," as Lampman would have them do. Half the misery we bring upon ourselves by individual acts, half the odium which is attached to those who fall into corrupt practices in political life comes from this inability to stand aside, even for a moment, in these "headlong days," and look deep into the heart of things. Lampman perhaps sacrificed his life to remain "unhampered," refusing an offer to go to the United States and "turn out" verses, instead of writing only when the inspiration of the moment called him. Living a humble life of daily routine work in a department of public service, he fell a victim to a disease which a richer man might have been able to combat. Who shall say the sacrifice was in vain? Who shall say that Canada is not richer in the knowledge of the struggle and the ideals of the poet she will honor for all time? To quote his own words, one realizes:
What power and beauty life indeed might yield,
Could we but cast away its conscious stress,
Simple of heart becoming, even as you.

Tragedy and comedy, comedy and tragedy! The world wage ever so and the melange spells "life." On Monday last a large meeting was held at the Mansion House, at the invitation of the Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress, to consider "Mrs. Close's emigration scheme for the benefit of pauper children and for the reduction of the rates." It is needless to say that the latter portion of the foregoing sentence meant that the magnificent banqueting hall of the Mansion House was crowded to the doors, and with a class of people one does not usually see at meetings of this character. There was none of the usually conspicuous figures on the platform, which give the speakers the chance of opening their address with "My Lords, ladies and gentlemen," although one did notice that one speaker said, "My Lord Mayor, my Lord, ladies and gentlemen," so possibly there was one representative of the usual platform ornaments!

The first thing a little group of Canadians commented upon was that there was only one Canadian representative on the platform, the Agent-General for New Brunswick. Neither the Canadian High Commissioner nor any representative from the Canadian emigration offices in London was present, and this in itself was significant of the attitude of the Canadian authorities as a whole. Mr. J.P. Rees, C.I.E., who is a close student of all Imperial movements, explained the scheme which Mrs. Close is to bring before the guardians at a monster meeting of these bodies on March 4. Briefly stated, the "scheme" inaugurated by the lady in question meant the establishment in Canada of farms where the small children who were under the guardianship of the State would be placed from the age of two years upward. These mites would be, of course, compelled to pass the usual Government medical examination; they would, when old enough, attend Canadian Government schools, and in their spare time they should be trained to help on these small farms of from 200 to 300 acres, managed by a Canadian farmer and his wife, while the command of the whole establishment should be taken by an English lady superintendent and an assistant. Before the children reached the age of twelve or fourteen years (after which time they cease to be under the control of the guardians) they might, if desirous, be sent back to England to enter the army, navy or mercantile service. The expense of maintaining such children in Great Britain is said to be enormous, £54,000 for every 200 children, and the sites for the homes in which they are placed in English country districts often cost from £12,000 to £18,000. Mr. Duff-Miller, Agent-General for New Brunswick, followed Mr. Rees, and seconded the resolution put to the meeting by that gentleman, which read as follows:–"That, in the opinion of this meeting further measurers are required for dealing with State children, and that the Local Government Board be requested to consider Mrs. Close's scheme and to take such action in the matter as may be deemed advisable." Mr. Duff-Miller said he considered the Maritime Provinces most suitable for the working out of the scheme proposed. His Government had shown their approval by promising to give to every farm purchased by the guardians 200 acres of wild land, provided that the Government should have the right of inspecting the homes. He also hoped that by taking these children at such an early age "slum characteristics" might disappear. Mrs. Close had given an estimate of the cost of maintenance in Canada which he deemed correct, and he had received letters from Lord Minto, the Duke of Argyll and Sir Charles Tupper, all approving of the scheme. (But it was noticeable in the letter from the Duke of Argyll that the age of six, rather than two, was mentioned as the best for child emigrants.)

Mrs. Close then addressed the meeting and reiterated what Mr. Rees had said regarding the fitness of Canada as a home for the children, and cited the figures which showed the reduction it would mean in rates for the Britisher and the thousand and one conditions in Canada which would be beneficial for the children. Her remarks were hardly ended when a perfect babel of remonstrance rose from men in all parts of the hall, and a scene followed which reminded one greatly of the trial in "Alice's Adventures." The Chief Magistrate of London, who was in the chair, struggled ineffectually to preserve his temper and the dignity of his office, and bawled at the men clamoring to make themselves heard by him. "I suppose I know ‘ow to conduct a meetin'?" while one of the guardians, regardless of Magisterial reprimands, pushed his way to the foot of the platform and insisted that the Lord Mayor allow the guardians to hold a meeting at the Mansion House and discuss the matter further. A representative of the London Chamber of Commerce managed to make his voice heard above the tumult, and to procure the permission of the irate Chairman to speak. He said he had been asked by the body he represented to express their views on the subject, which were entirely opposed to those of Mrs. Close. All the time this gentleman was speaking a small, dapper man with a certain suggestion of the foreigner about him was standing close to the platform, armed with a very long ear-trumpet, which was upturned to catch every word which might fall from the speaker's lips, who was warmly advocating the utilizing of "existing agencies" instead of the establishment of a giant scheme, such as proposed. The small gentleman, clad in the most irreproachable of frock coats, his moustache brushed upward a la the German Emperor, immaculate linen, his collar of a new and remarkable pattern, his rather scant hair parted and smoothed with infinite care, pince-nez on the bridge of his rather retrousse nose, was evidently deeply interested. Almost before the closing sentence of the speaker to whom he listened with such attention was completed, he was on the platform and with a courteous bow handed his card to the Lord Mayor, and when the din of the myriad voices clamoring to be heard was stilled by the autocratic ruling of the Chairman, who "knew ‘ow to conduct a meeting'," Dr. Barnardo's name was announced. So here was the indefatigable laborer who has placed thousands of children in every portion of Canada. It was inconceivable. No words can describe the enthusiasm of that man, no pen could picture the marvellous [sic] way in which he managed to ridicule the scheme proposed, and to bring the meeting to see that "existing agencies" could place children much more cheaply in Canada than under any such scheme as proposed. For 37 years he had been sending children to Canada, had paid thirteen visits to that country, had experimented in sending out children who had not yet passed through the period of infantile disorders, found that the mortality was 20 per cent, owing to intestinal troubles in the hot weather and respiratory troubles in the cold. "I have always a thousand babies in my nursery," quaintly announced this energetic mortal, who spoke with a slight foreign accent, "and I know whereof I speak." The speaker filled one with amazement. With his coat-sleeves pulled up, showing a large expanse of white cuff, his ear-trumpet either tucked under one arm or flourished as a mark of accentuation, a sheaf of notes, from which he quoted figures "all confounding," holding the papers close to his eyes being evidently terribly near-sighted, one marvelled [sic] all the more that with two such disabilities this intrepid little man had accomplished 37 years of the most arduous and heartbreaking work a man could attempt. Possibly his own scheme in its inauguration had received no less active opposition than that of the lady who, alternately putting in her monocle and dropping it with an angry gesture, listened to Dr. Barnardo's criticism of her cherished project. At the cost of £10 and an annual sum of £3 for supervision, the doctor declared he could send out and place 3,150 children in Canada, and he ended his most vigorous address by moving the following amendment: "That, while earnestly desiring to increase the annual number of child emigrants sent out to Canada by boards of guardians in this country, we consider that the scheme proposed by Mrs. Close is eminently impracticable and will prove to be both difficult to work and very costly and uncertain in its results, and that the end she appears to have in view can be attained with more certainty through the existing agencies at a very considerable saving to the ratepayers."

Mr. Lile, the Chairman of the City of London Board of Guardians, seconded Dr. Barnardo's resolution, and condemned the scheme as not being a workable one. He said he had been in Canada last summer and had come to the conclusion that the children were best kept in England under the supervision of the guardians until they were twelve years of age. Then, again, chaos reigned. From the body of the hall a tall clergyman rose up and demanded to know what the Colonial Office had written to the Lord Mayor on the subject, and, after the most extraordinary hesitation on the part of the Chairman, who seemed to be imbued with the autocratic ideas of a Grand Duke, the fact was elicited that such a letter had been received, but not produced, and Mr. Rees, who had sprung to his feet to anser some of the objections advanced by previous speakers to the scheme, proposed that the letter should be read to the meeting, when the Lord Mayor emphatically remarked, "I advise not," amidst the derisive laughter of the opponents of the scheme. That it was a matter for the Local Government Board and not the Colonial Office had been the gist of the Colonial Secretary's communication, but there was evidently some comment upon the scheme which the Lord Mayor did not wish the public to hear. Cries of "Vote, vote," resounded through the hall, and while it was clear to the bulk of the audience that Dr. Barnardo's resolution carried by a large majority, the Lord Mayor, in his role of the Grand Duke Vladimir, calmly announced that Mr. Rees' resolution had carried. There were angry cries and murmurs, the representatives of the press were convulsed with laughter, and just as they were about to gather up their papers and depart the Lord Mayor, evidently subject to strong pressure from some individual on the platform, leant forward and said, "Gentlemen of the press, Dr. Barnardo's resolution did carry."

This was a never-to-be-forgotten scene. The historic hall, where the most weighty utterances of Ministers of the Crown are heard at the annual banquet, had become a setting for the most roaring farce, possibly, ever known within its walls. And the pity of it all lies in the fact that Mrs. Close's scheme had certain points which should commend it to all humane and intelligent people. In the first place, it need only be inaugurated as an "experiment." Dr. Barnardo did not state in what district in Canada and under what conditions he found the infant mortality so great. In the Niagara district children of tender years might be reared without any of the difficulties which he insists upon. From one point of view, those children could not come to Canada too young. There is something in the climate which stimulates the intellect, and if these children were to be educated in our public schools it were well they attended the kindergarten classes before that prejudice of an "institution" child could be felt by the other scholars. Who is proof against the pathos of the baby waif? Who thinks of it as being tainted with the vices of the slums? One grants that the scheme looks at the first glance hardly workable, with the farm, the farmer and his wife and tow ladies to look after fifteen babies, but why not a certain percentage of older girls, who would help to care for the children and look after the lighter house work, and so receive a training which would fit them for positions as domestics later on? Why not gardening rather than farming of two hundred acres; and why "well away from a town"? There are small towns in Canada where the schools are near at hand, where public opinion would act as no committee of inspection could, where the small mites could see something of human kindliness and home life, where men and women who knew them from babyhood, would make an effort to secure their future? There is really a great deal to be said for the scheme in a general sense, and it only wants investigation by our own and the British authorities to put it on a right basis. Experiment alone will test the virtue of the scheme, and if the figures quoted relating to the expense for the British taxpayer are correct, then it were well worth the while of the Boards of Guardians spending a thousand pounds on an experiment which might end in the saving of many millions, as well as opening up a much wider vista for the unfortunate children, who are guilty of no crime save that of pauperism.
Lally Bernard
London, Eng., Feb. 10.


The Manitoba Free Press, Tuesday, May 6, 1930
Emphasizes Value of Boy Immigrants.
J.N.K. Macalister [sic], C.P.R., Furnishes Much Information for Sask. Commission
Declares Majority of New Arrivals Brought to Canada Remain on Land.

No conclusion had yet been reached by the Saskatchewan royal commission on immigration that the point of saturation in immigration had been reached in that province, Dr. W.W. Swanson, chairman, declared at the sitting of the commission, yesterday afternoon, at the Fort Garry hotel.

It was a grave assertion to make that increases in population brought distress. Experience in the past had indicated that greater population usually brought higher standards of living, he said.

“Personally, I believe that increases in population under proper conditions will work out to the advantage of the Dominion,” he said.

Dr. Swanson made his remarks during the hearing of evidence by J.N.K. MacAlister, chief immigration officer of the Canadian Pacific railway at Montreal. As the commission considered what he had to say of the utmost importance for their purpose, he was kept on the witness stand practically the entire day.

Besides Dr. Swanson, the other commissioners present were: P.H. Shelton, Regina; Tom Johnston, Govan; G.C. Neff and A.R. Reusch, Yorkton.

Summarily the principle evidence Mr. MacAlister gave was to the effect that the British boy scheme was one of the most desirable forms of immigration; that the issuing of false information about working conditions in Canada was being stopped; that the dole should not be held out as a bait to bring British immigrants to Canada, and that the majority of immigrants brought to Canada remained on the land.

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