Immigrants to Canada

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Immigration Report of 1851

From the British Parliamentary Papers, 1852 XXXIII (1474)

Government House, Toronto,
September 9, 1851.
(Received 29th September 1851.)
(Answered No. 654, November 4, 1851, Page 40.)
My Lord,

I have the honour to enclose herewith, for your Lordship's perusal, the copy of a communication which has been addressed by the chief agent of immigration tot eh provincial secretary, and I request your Lordship's attention to the statements therein made with respect to certain immigrants from South Uist.

I have, &c.
(Signed) Elgin and Kincardine.

Enclosure in No. 1.

Emigration Depôt, Quebec,
September 2, 1851.

I had the honour of addressing you on the 11th ultimo, respecting several parties of paupers which were being shipped by certain unions in Ireland. I have now received advices from the guardians of the Kilrush Union of their having shipped 324 paupers at Limerick, and remitted to this department the sum of 222l. 3s. sterling, to be divided as follows:

male adults 12s. sterling each,
Female adults 15 s. "
Children 6s. "

The Ennistymon Union has also sent out 374 paupers from the same port, remitting247l. 7s. sterling, to be divided in like proportions as those directed by the Kilrush Union. The guardians have also requested that I would send these parites forward to whatever part of the province would afford the best prospect of employment, and pay them over any balance which may be left on arrival at their final destination.

During the past week the "Brooksby" with 231 adult emigrants, and the "Montezuma" with 336 adults, have arrived from Loch Brisdale. These people are a portion of 2,000 emigrants whom Colonel Gordon has contracted to send out from his property in South Uist this fall. From the statements made by these people, they were promised to be sent on free to Hamilton, and furnished with a certain amount of provisions on arrival there; but from information received from the agents here of Messrs. Reid and Murray (the party who contracted with Colonel Gordon for their transport to this port) it appears that the emigrants on board these ships were only to be provided with a passage to Quebec, and on arrival here to be left to their own resources. Not having received any communication whatever from the parties connected with the emigration of these people, I have no means of ascertaining the circumstances under which they have been sent out, beyond these statements. Out of 725 souls on board these two vessels, not more than 10 or 15 could speak English; and as they all landed here under the impression that they were to be sent free to Hamilton, I have forwarded them free to that port, at a cost of 10s. each adult, and have given Mr. Hawke timely notice of their departure herefrom.

Three other ships with about 1,200 souls may be expected in the course of this month from the same quarter, and as the whole probably will have been sent out under the same circumstances (the more objectionable as they will arrive at so late a period of the year), presenting a strong contrast to those under which Sir James Matheson sent out a similar class of emigrants, he having defrayed the entire cost of their emigration and inland transport to their ultimate destination, his Excellency may deem it proper that some representation should be made that may lead to the reimbursement by Colonel Gordon of the expenses incurred by this department on account of his people.

I have, &c.
(Signed A.C. Buchanan, Chief Agent.

The Honourable J. Leslie,
Provincial Secretary,
&c. &c. &c.

No. 2

(No. 136.)
Copy of a Despatch from the Earl of Elgin to Earl Grey.
Government House, Quebec, November 27, 1851.
(Received December 15, 1851.)
My Lord,

With reference to your Lordship's despatch, No. 654, of the 4th instant, I have the honour to enclose the copy of a letter which has been addressed to the chief agent for emigration at this port by Colonel Gordon's factor, with the copy of Mr. Buchanan's reply. I also take the liberty of sending, for your Lordship's perusal, the copy of a letter which Mr. Buchanan has received from Sir James Matheson, which is highly creditable to him, as well at to the benevolent writer.

I have, &c.
(Signed) Elgin and Kincardine.

The Right Hon. Earl Grey,
&c. &c. &c.

Enclosure 1 in No. 2.

South Uist, August 9, 1851.

I have been here for the last three weeks, superintending the emigration of about 1,500 souls from this country to Canada; and I have just learnt with regret, that, owing to the sudden and unexpected illness of Colonel Gordon, the proprietor of this island and Barra, no previous notice has been sent to you.

The "Brooksby" and "Montezuma" were despatched with passengers last month; the "Perthshire" on the 5th instant; and I expect the "Admiral" to be cleared out a few days hence. The emigrants from south Uist have been employed for some years past at draining, ditching, road making, &c., and I trust they may be advantageously employed when they reach Canada in similar work, or at railway operations, where I am glad to learn there is an opening for a number of hands. Of the Barra people, part have found employment at similar work, and part have supported themselves as fishermen, of which they have considerable skill.

About 1,000 people were sent from these islands to Quebec about two years ago, many o whom have done well, and send home encouraging accounts to their friends here, with induced them to emigrate also; a free passage, clothing, and shoes being provided by the proprietor; and I hope these that are now leaving the land of their fathers may earn a competency in the land of their adoption. I have no doubt but that at the Emigration office, Quebec, every information and facility will be given to direct the emigrants from Uist and Barra to such places as they may find employment.

I respectfully am, &c.
(Signed) John Fleming.
Factor for Colonel Gordon.

To _______ _______
Emigration Officer, Quebec.

Enclosure 2 in No. 2.

Emigration Department, Quebec, November 26, 1851.

I have to acknowledge the receipt on the 15th of September of your letter of 9th August, the first and only intimation afforded me of the shipment of 1,500 Highlanders, the tenantry of Colonel Gordon, from his estates in South Uist and Barra.

The vessels arrived as follows, the three first previously to the receipt of your letter:

August 28, Brooksby, 285 passengers.
August 30, Montezuma 442 "
September 10, Perthshire 437 "
October 1, Admiral 413 "
October 18, Liskeard 104 "

A total of 1,681 souls, less five adults and three infants, who died on the passage or in quarantine.

These parties presented every appearance of poverty; and, from their statement, which was confirmed by the masters of the several vessels, were without the means of leaving the ship, or of procuring a day's subsistence for their helpless families on landing, and many of them, more particularly the party by the "Perthshire," were very insufficiently supplied with clothing.

On referring to the passenger lists of these five vessels, I find the emigrants classed the following proportions:

For Transport 660l. 10s. 0d.
For provisions 14l. 0s. 0d.
Making a total of 674l. 10s. 0d.
The amount of the Emigrant Tax realized by the province from this party of emigrants was 522l 0s. 0d.
The balance, therefore, for which Colonel Gordon appears to remain liable, is 152l. 10s. 0d.

In addition to this, there is a charge for a week's rations served out to the passengers on leaving the vessel, for which this department is held responsible, in the event of Colonel Gordon's declining to settle it.

Quebec is practically the only seaport of Canada; and being situated in a country already fully supplied with a population speaking a different language, this city and neighbourhood afford no opening of any extent for the employment of the destitute emigrants who arrive in large numbers and at a particular season of the year. It is in the interior and western portions of the province only that employment for labourers and artizans is to be procured, and these must be reached before the pauper can find any means of support. Therefore, to convey to this port emigrants possessing no resources whatever, and without a provision of some kind for their progress westward, is to subject them to great distress and certain discouragement.

The first and most important object of the creation of the Emigrant fund is the medical assistance of the entire body of emigrants throughout their progress to the most distant districts; and the charges under this head, including the quarantine establishment at Grosse-Isle, absorb a large proportion of this fund. The number of persons whose emigration, voluntary and unaided, takes place in total ignorance of the circumstances in which the change must involve them, together with the large portion whose destination remains to be governed by chance, are always sufficient to exhaust the remaining resources of the department; and in the season of 1852 there will be, owing to a change in the law passed during the late session of the Legislature, a reduction of fully thirty per cent. on the present rates; so that I cannot perceive that it will come within my province to recommend the denial of assistance to the classes here alluded to, with a view to admit the claims of those whose emigration is prompted by the direct interest of their landlord.

If dependence upon the Provincial Government for the maintenance of all emigrants landed at the port of Quebec were permitted to those who are interested in the removal from Great Britain of paupers and other unprofitable portions of the populations, the amount required would shortly prove to be beyond the resources of the country, and exhaustive of its means of employment. The most disastrous reaction must follow, and Canada become at once a burden instead of a relief to the mother country in respect to her redundant population.

There is also another point of view in which I would wish to place this subject before Colonel Gordon. The mere transfer to this port of an indigent tenantry, without an alteration in any respect in their condition, gives no reasonable ground for expecting their subsequent successful progress. The numerous inconveniences which attend emigration are sufficiently trying to every class, and, with the addition of distress and privation, must always induce unfavourable representations by the emigrants to their friends who remain at home. The result is necessarily a disinclination to follow; certainly an indisposition to make any exertions for this purpose. If, on the contrary, the landlord who is interested in the reduction of the population of his estate should extend his assistance so far as to carry forward his emigrants to the occupation of land, or should secure their advance to advantageous employment, the sure result would be, incitement to industry and exertion, and the strongest desire on the part of all to obtain a similar opportunity of benefiting themselves.

I am satisfied that Colonel Gordon, on being informed of the limited extent of the resources of the Provincial Emigrant Department, and the nature of the claims for relief to which it is applicable, will see that to permit the arrival at this port of further parties of his tenantry, in a situation so destitute as that of the South Uist emigrants, will be to risk a result as fatal to the people as it must be unsatisfactory to himself.

I cannot close this letter without referring to the wholly different circumstances under which a party consisting of 986 persons were sent out in the past spring by Sir James Matheson, from the island of Lewis. These emigrants were provided with a passage to this port, food and clothing, and on arrival were supplied with a week's rations and a free passage to their ultimate destination. They had embarked in the early part of the season, and nearly the whole landed here in July, when an unusual demand for labourers existed in almost every section of the province. About 400 proceeded to Sherbrooke, Eastern Townships, where those able to work obtained employment on the Montreal and Portland Railroad at ample wages. The remainder went forward to Toronto, where they, also, immediately obtained suitable employment.

The number of persons whose emigration has been entirely provided for, either by landlords or poor law unions, has been unusually large this season. They have generally been provided with a sum from 10s. to 20s. sterling on landing here, which has enabled them at once to proceed to join their friends or to reach suitable employment.

Canada generally offers a favourable opening for the reception of a portion of the redundant labour of the United Kingdom; but it is essentially important that emigrants should arrive here early in the season; if possible, in the months of May or June. They should be able-bodied, and prepared for labour in their several vocations, and they should be free from aged or decrepid incumbrances. If then they possess sufficient means to convey themselves without delay to the different sections of the province, according to the openings presented, they cannot fail to secure immediate employment at ample rates of wages.

I have availed myself of the receipt of your letter to express at some length my views on the subject of the emigration of the destitute classes, and a copy of the correspondence has been submitted to his Excellency the Governor-General. I have to request that you will bring it, at your earliest convenience, under the notice of Colonel Gordon.

I am, &c.
(Signed) A.C. Buchanan,
Chief Agent.

J. Fleming, Esq.,
Factor for Colonel Gordon, South Uist.

Enclosure 3 No. 2.

Stornoway, Island of Lewis, October 10, 1851.
Dear Sir,

My friend, Mr. J.E. Mathieson of Glasgow, has sent me from time to time copies of the letters which you had the goodness to write to him respecting the emigrants from this island, and I cannot deny myself the gratification of writing to offer you my most grateful thanks for the very kind interest you have evinced in their welfare, and for the care you have taken in seeing that my instructions regarding them wee properly carried into effect.

I consider it a most fortunate circumstance for this country, that the care of the emigrants on arriving in the new world should be under the control of one so well qualified by his sound judgment and kindness of heart to watch over and promote their best interests.

It is the greatest relief to my mind that the emigrants to the Eastern Townships have through your means been so well provided with employment.

I have lately made an arrangement with the Free Church to send out the Reverend Ewen M'Lean, a clergy man of this island, to reside at whatever place the largest number of them may be settled, for the due administration of the ordinances of religion, which I trust will tend to their comfort and edification. At the same time I am informed, and am well convinced, that it is not for their interest that many of them should remain together, but rather that they should be dispersed and absorbed among the general mass of the population, as the best means of eradicating those habits of indolence and inertness to which their impoverished condition must in some measure be attributed.

By a letter to my factor from his brother, Mr. Hugh Munro M'Kenzie, who accompanied one body of the emigrants as far as Quebec, I am much surprised to learn that he heard at Toronto those bound for that place had spread a false report of their having been promised land, and had conveyed an impression to a philanthropic body of gentlemen composing the St. Andrew's Society that they were badly used in not having received any such grant.

I have, therefore, considered it advisable to address the enclosed open letter to Mr. Macpherson, whose name has been mentioned to me as a member of the society, which I shall feel much obliged if you will have the kindness to forward, after perusal.

I remain, &c.
(Signed) James Matheson
A.C. Buchanan, Esq.,

No. 3.

(No. 145)
Copy of a Despatch from the Earl of Elgin to Earl Grey.
Government House, Quebec, December 29, 1851.
(Received January 19, 1851[sic])
My Lord,

I have the honour to transmit herewith the Chief Emigrant Agent's abstract quarterly return of emigrants arrived at Quebec during the quarter ending 31st October, with a return of the prices of labour, provisions, and clothing during the same period.

I have, &c.
(Signed) Elgin and Kincardine.
The Right Hon. Earl Grey,
&c. &c. &c.

No. 2.

Quarterly Return
Return showing the Average Retail Prices of Provisions and Clothing in the Colongy of Canada, East, in the Quarter ended 31st October 1851.

Articles Quantity Average Prices

(In Sterling)

s. d.
Bread Per 6lb. Loaf 0 0 6
Butter " lb. 0 0 7
Beef, Mutton, Veal, and Port " " 0 0 3
Coals " Chaldron 1 5 0
Candles " lb 0 0 6
Cheese " " 0 0 5
Coffee, Ground " " 0 0 10
Eggs " Dozen 0 0 7
Flour, Fine " Barrel 0 16 0
Fish, Dry, Cod " Cwt. 0 12 6
Do. Green " " 0 10 0
Fire-wood " Cord 0 12 0
Herrings " Barrel 1 0 0
Milk " Quart 0 0 3
Oatmeal " Cwt. 0 8 0
Pepper " lb. 0 0 8
Potatoes " Bushel 0 2 0
Rice " lb. 0 0 2
Soap, Yellow " " 0 0 2
Sugar, Brown " " 0 0 4
Salt " Bushel 0 1 0
Tea, Black " lb. 0 1 10


Shirts, Cotton Each 0 2 3
Shirts, Flannel " 0 4 6
Blankets, Common Per Pair 0 10 0
Flannel, for Drawers or Women's Petticoats " Yard 0 1 6
Cloth, Broad, for Coat or Trousers " " 0 7 6
Shoes, Strong, for Men " Pair 0 6 0
Boots, Strong, for Men " " 0 12 6
Shoes, Strong, for Women " " 0 4 0
Boots, Strong, for Women " " 0 7 6

A.C. Buchanan,
Chief Agent,
Canada, East.

No. 3.

Quarterly Return.
Return showing the Average Wages of Mechanics and others in Canada, East, for the Three Months ended 31st October 1851.

Trade or Calling Average Wages
per Diem,
without Board
(in Sterling).
Average Wages
per Diem,
with Board
(in Sterling).
Average Wages
per Annum,
with Board
(in Sterling).
Highest and lowest
Rates per Diem, without
Board or Lodging
(in Sterling).
Highest. Lowest.
s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d..
Bread and biscuit bakers 4 0 - - - - 0 5 0 0 3 0
Butchers 4 0 - - - - 0 5 6 0 3 0
Bricklayers 5 0 - - - - 0 6 6 0 4 6
Brickmakers 4 0 - - - - 0 5 0 0 3 0
Blacksmiths 5 6 - - - - 0 6 6 0 4 6
Curriers 3 6 - - - - 0 4 9 0 2 9
Carpenters and joiners 6 0 - - - - 0 7 6 0 5 0
Cabinet-makers 5 0 - - - - 0 6 0 0 4 0
Coopers 3 9 - - - - 0 4 6 0 3 0
Carters, with horse and cart 5 0 - - - - 0 7 6 0 4 6
Cooks, women Engaged by the month 1 0 0 0 15 0
Dairy women Engaged by the month 0 16 0 0 12 6
Domestic Servants, female Engaged by the month 0 12 6 0 8 0
Dress-makers and milliners 1 3 - - - - 0 2 0 0 1 0
Farm labourers 3 6 - - - - 0 4 6 0 2 9
Gardeners Engaged by the month 4 10 0 3 15 0
Grooms Engaged by the month 2 10 0 1 15 0
Millwrights 5 0 - - - - 0 6 0 0 4 0
Millers 4 6 - - - - 0 6 0 0 4 0
Painters 5 0 - - - - 0 6 6 0 4 6
Plasterers 5 0 - - - - 0 6 0 0 4 0
Plumbers and glaziers 5 0 - - - - 0 6 0 0 4 6
Printers and bookbinders Engaged by the month 6 5 0 5 7 6
Quarry men 3 6 - - - - 0 4 6 0 2 9
Rope makers 3 6 - - - - 0 4 6 0 2 9
Sail makers 4 6 - - - - 0 6 0 0 4 0
Sawyers 3 0 or 4s. 6d. per 100 feet - - - - - -
Shipwrights and boat-builders 5 0 - - - - 0 6 0 0 4 0
Shoemakers 4 0 - - - - 0 5 6 0 3 9
Slaters and shinglers 3 0 or 4s. 6d. per 100 shingles - - - - - -
Stonemasons 6 0 - - - - 0 7 6 0 5 0
Stonecutters 5 0 - - - - 0 6 0 0 4 6
Tailors 3 9 - - - - 0 4 6 0 3 0
Tanners 4 0 - - - - 0 5 0 0 3 9
Tin smiths, braziers, &c. 4 6 - - - - 0 6 0 0 3 9
Wheelwrights 4 0 Very few employed - - - - - -
Whitesmiths 5 0 - - - - 0 6 0 0 4 6
Charge for board and lodging for mechanics and labourers, per week 10 0 - - - - 0 12 6 0 8 0

1st - What funds have been placed at your disposal during the past quarter for the relief of emigrants?

Emigration expenditure 1,928l. 8s. 3d.
Agency expenses to 31st Dec. 596l. 3s. 3d.

Total 2,524l. 11s. 6d.

2nd - State the description of labour which is in request in the colony?

Farm labourers and domestic servants, more particularly females. Labourers are also much wanted on the public works; and it is fully expected that as soon as the season will permit an increased demand for labourers will be experienced, and that the wages of the past year will be fully sustained.

3rd - Would the rate of emigration of the last quarter satisfy the existing demand for labour?

The last arrival from Europe with emigrants this season was the 25th October. Navigation of the St. Lawrence closed 27th November. But few emigrants are remaining about Quebec.

4th - State any particulars relative to emigration, the demand for labour, and the means of remunerating it, which you think may be useful?

Canada generally offers a favourable opening for the reception of the redundant labour of the United Kingdom; but it is of the utmost importance that they should arrive here early in the season. An unusually large emigration has taken place this fall, principally during the months of September and October; and but for the demand for labourers on the railroads now under construction many of these poor people would have been exposed to much suffering and hardship.

No. 4.

Copy of a Despatch from the Earl of Elgin to Earl Grey.
(No. 6.)
Government House, Quebec, January 21, 1852.
(Received February 9, 1852.)
My Lord,

I have the honour to transmit herewith the Chief Emigration Agent's Annual Report for the year 1851.

I have, &c.
(Signed) Elgin and Kincardine
The Right Hon. Earl Grey,
&c. &c. &c.

Enclosure in No. 4.

Office of Her Majesty's Chief Agent for the Superintendence of Emigration to Canada,
Quebec, December 31, 1851.
My Lord,

At the close of another season it again becomes my duty to submit to your Excellency, for the information of Her Majesty's Government, my annual Report relating to the emigration to this province during the season of 1851, accompanied by the usual statistical tables.

Table No. 1. Of the Appendix presents a synopsis of the season's emigration. The total number of souls embarked from Europe, exclusive of cabin passengers, was 39,563, which, with the births on the passage, 59, gives a total of 39,622. The deaths at sea were 210, and in quarantine 51, making the total mortality 261, leaving as the number of emigrants from the United Kingdom and the continent of Europe landed in this province, 39,361, added to which were 609 classed as cabin passengers, and 1,106 persons from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, making the total number of persons landed in the colony, 41,076. This total, as compared with that of 1850, shows an increase of 8,784 souls, equal to near 28 per cent.

The following is a comparative statement of the emigration of the last two years; viz.

1850 1851
From England 9,887 9,677
From Ireland 17,976 22,381
From Scotland 2,879 7,042
From continent of Europe 849 870
From lower ports 701 1,106




This comparison shows a small decrease of the numbers from English ports, equal to 2 per cent.; the numbers from Ireland exhibit an increase of 24 per cent.; from Scotland of 144 per cent.; and from the lower ports, equal to 57 per cent.; from the continent of Europe the increase is but 29 souls.

From this return (Table No. 1.) it will appear that the number of vessels engaged in the passenger trade from Europe generally was 337, measuring 148,328 tons, and navigated by 5,465 seaman. Of this number, 17 were foreign vessels, measuring 5,329 tons, 10 of which came from continental ports, and seven from the United Kingdom. Of the whole number of passenger vessels, 16 brought exclusively cabin passengers; 73 (766 persons) had not a sufficient number of persons on board to bring them within the regulations of the Passengers Act; 33 had less than 50 persons on board; 40 above 50 and under 100; 69 under 150; 38 under 200; 38 under 300; 17 under 400; 8 under 500; and two had over 500 each on board. 42 of these vessels made two voyages during the season, so that 295 vessels only were employed in the conveyance of emigrants to this port within the year.

The total adult emigrants from European ports were 32,573, while the vessels in which they embarked, according to their tonnage, would have been permitted, under the Passengers Act, to carry 68,695, exclusive of their crews. The 134 vessels from Irish ports had their full complement to within 3,141 persons, while the remaining vessels could have legally carried more than double the number they had on board.

The average length of passage to the quarantine station was, from England 41, from Ireland 40, from Scotland 41, and from the continent of Europe 54 days, being a small increase on that of 1850.

At Table No. 2 of the Appendix will be found a return of the same passenger ships, showing the number from each port and country; the total number of emigrants from each port; with the deaths on the passage and in quarantine.

The whole number of deaths among 5,275 steerage emigrants from England, excluding the port of Liverpool, was 34, equal to 0.64 per cent.; among 26,521 from Ireland, including Liverpool (from which port the chief emigration is Irish), 187, equal to 0.70 per cent.; among 6,898 from Scotland 35 died, or 0.50 per cent.; and among 869 from the continental ports, 5, equal to 0.57 per cent. The greatest mortality from any port was from Liverpool, 77 deaths having occurred, equal to 1.80 per cent. on the whole number from that port. The port of Limerick presents the next heaviest per-centage, being equal to 0.80. Upon the whole, the season's emigration has been satisfactory as to health, the whole mortality during the passage and at Grosse-Isle being only 0.64 per cent. on each 100 persons embarked.

I beg to submit the following letter, lately received from Dr. Douglas, the medical superintendent at Grosse-Isle, as it contains much information as to the means that might be adopted to prevent the introduction of disease on shipboard before leaving Europe, and also offers some valuable suggestions for the future management of that establishment.

Quebec, December 15, 1851.

I have much pleasure in complying with your request, that I should furnish you with any information in my power bearing upon the health and appearance of emigrants on their arrival at the quarantine station during the past season, as well as any facts that may have come nder my notice connected with the occurrences of the voyage.

It may not be out of place here to remark, that the general health and condition of emigrants have improved yearly since 1846-47, those dreadful years of famine and its attendant pestilence. The past season was remarkable for the very healthy condition of the Irish emigrants, and their almost total freedom from that form of fever called ship-fever, -the scourge of former years. The pauper emigrants, particularly the young females, sent out by the unions of Galway, Cahireiveen, Kilrush, and Clifden, were remarkable, with but few exceptions, for their clean, healthy condition; and the shipmasters who brought them out extolled their conduct and behaviour on the voyage, the habits of discipline acquired in the unions being of great service. The nominal returns forwarded to you from time to time during the season exhibit the deaths and births that occured on the passage to have been, deaths, 210, births, 59.

Among the casualties of the voyage were the following. On board the barque "Giffeon," from Cork, a boy had his leg severely fractured, and the flesh lacerated, by a fall into the hold. It was found necessary to perform amputation of the thigh on arrival at the quarantine hospital. Another boy in the barque "Clutha," from Glasgow, had both legs fractured, but recovered without further ill effects. An adult passenger of the barque "Dominica" was drowned off Saint Paul's.

The diseases admitted to hospital the past season have been small-pox, measles, and scarlatina. The majority of these cases were among the Highland passengers from Lewis and Glasgow, and Irish emigrants from Liverpool. The number of vessels on board of which small-pox broke out was seven, being about the proportion of former years. It would tend much to prevent the spread of this disgusting disease in emigrant ships if, in the medical inspection which takes place previously to the embarkation in Great Britain, all those children could be vaccinated who have not already undergone that protecting means. I am well aware of the many difficulties that would attend the carrying out such a regulation, and can remember the trouble we had to obtain the enactment obliging a medical inspection, one of the many useful measures which have tended to the improved condition and amelioration of the health of emigrants in their transit to this country.

As already observed, there were few or no cases of typhus fever among the Irish, those admitted being English passengers from the barque "Secret" from Bideford, and Highlanders, from the brig "Vesper," from Thurso. In the first of these vessels the disease was of a very malignant type, and proved fatal to several of both passengers and seamen.

The Highland emigrants from the island of South Uist, of whom 1,681 arrived in five vessels, were sent out at the expense of Colonel Gordon, their landlord. They arrived generally healthy; five deaths (and these infants) having taken place on the voyage, and two births. The supply of provisions and water seems to have been good and liberal; but I never, during my long experience at the station, saw a body of emigrants so destitute of clothing and bedding; many children of nine and ten years old had not a rag to cover them. Mrs. Crisp, the wife of the master of the "Admiral" (which vessel brought out 413 of the number), was busily employed all the voyage in converting empty bread-bags, old canvass, and blankets, into coverings for them. One full-grown man passed my inspection with no other garment than a woman's petticoat. Great care and precaution seemed to have been taken of their health on the voyage by the medical men in charge, especially Dr. Patterson of the "Perthshire," who caused the ship's allowance to be issued sparingly at first, as many families had for months previous to embarking subsisted solely upon shell-fish and sea-weed picked up on the beaches and rocks of their island. I learned on inquiry that the ordinary payment for the day's labour of an able-bodied man in South Uist was one pound of oatmeal, and that constant labour even for this miserable pittance was not to be obtained. It would appear from the statement of one of the captains, that Colonel Gordon had authorized the distribution of clothing to those most destitute: but that his agent, on mustering them before leaving, found them, in his opinion, sufficiently provided, and had the clothing taken on shore again. A similar class of emigrants, sent out at the expense of their landlord, from Lewis, were better provided with clothes and bedding; though measles broke out among them on the passage, of which several children died.

As to the general expenditure of the quarantine station, having in view the great reduction of the tax on emigrants, and consequent diminution of revenue available for their benefit, I herewith annex a memorandum (Appendix, No. 9., drawn up in 1849, and continued down to the present season. From this you will observe that the general expenditure of the establishment has varied considerably, but not as might be supposed, from the greater or smaller proportion of sick admitted to the hospitals; for example, from 1833 to 1839, both inclusive, embracing a period of seven years, while the average number of sick treated during the season was 359 2/7, the average yearly expenditure was 3,070l. 10s. 10 6/7d.; again, during the following seven years, say, from 1840 to 1846 (both inclusive), the average yearly expenditure was 1,875l. 6s. 6 4/7d., while the average number of sick treated in hospital was 475 4/7. Leaving out the famine year 1847, when the admissions to the hospitals were nearly 9,000, and the expenditure about 16,600l. we find that during the past four years, while the average admissions have been 598, the average yearly expenditure has been 2,776l. 0s. 1d., in which amount is not included upwards of 1,000l. paid in 1848 as the cost of running the "St. Pierre" steamer that year, nor does it include the amount paid through the Board of Works for repairs, &c. to buildings, amounting in all to about 1,000l. yearly, making a total average of 3,776l. 0s. 1d. per annum.

The cost of the establishment might be reduced to 1,800l. or 2,00l. in ordinary years without impairing its efficiency; and this sum should be made to cover the payment of two trips of a steam-boat per week, or one trip of a steamer and another of a small sailcraft. The greatest inconvenience has been felt the last three years from having no means of communicating with the town but once in the week, as on the unexpected arrival of a large body of emigrants on Wednesday afternoon (the steamer having left that morning), when supplies are required, we had either to send express to town, or wait until the following week, to send up orders, which could only be fulfilled by the regular channel the following week, causing thus a delay of fifteen days.

The increased expenditure of the station the first seven and last four years has been made up chiefly of salaries and pay to military officers of the line or commissariat. In the items of yearly expenditure of the last four seasons, I observe one of travelling expenses, varying from 21l. to 87l. 11s. 4d., this latter sum being the amount paid last season. This being an entirely new charge, and not one which I have ever been called upon officially to certify, I am ignorant of its nature or purpose.

I have already called your attention to a matter connected with the supplies which the emigrants detained in quarantine are permitted to purchase, and which has always appeared to me unjust. You are aware that contracts are entered into by the commissariat with those parties who will engage to supply, at the lowest rate, the provisions, stores, milk, &c. required for the sick in hospital, and healthy emigrants who are supported by the Government. As an inducement to contractors to tender low, they are permitted to charge the highest market rate for whatever is sold to emigrants in quarantine. It thus happens, that as the supplies required for the sick are trifling as compared with those sold to the thousands of healthy, parties tender very low, making their profit out of the poor emigrant. Hence, last year, while the bread was furnished to the hospital at 4d. per loaf, the emigrant had to pay 8d. for the same loaf; and while milk was furnished to the hospital at 5d. a gallon, the emigrant had to pay 1s., and in many other articles of food the emigrant was made to pay double the price contracted for. Vegetables, more particularly potatoes, which passengers are eager to purchase after the long privation of a sea-voyage, were seldom or ever to be bought, because the profit on bread was greater.

I would beg to suggest that in future arrangements contractors should be obliged to furnish all supplies, provisions, &c. to those requiring them on the island at the same rates, or on equally favourable terms, as those tendered for the hospital. By thus establishing one uniform price much dissatisfaction would be saved, and a protective monopoly, in its most objectionable form, be avoided.

I remain, &c.
(Signed) G.M. Douglas,
Medical Superintendent.

I fully concur in the several suggestions contained in Dr. Douglas's letter, and consider those offered with a view to remedy the ravages and sufferings occasioned by the small-pox as deserving the attention of Her Majesty's Government.

I have only found it necessary to proceed in two cases against masters of vessels for violation of the Imperial Passengers Act; viz., against Captain Poole of the "Ailsa," from Liverpool, for having issued an inferior quality of flour to his passengers, for which he was fined 5l. sterling, with costs; the second case was against Captain Gorman of the "Jane Black," from Limerick, for having eight persons over his legal complement; he was fined in the lowest penalty, 2l. sterling each, in consideration of his having to pay 2l. 10s. currency, under the provincial law, for the same parties, they not having been certified upon his list of clearance.

In consequence of complaints being made by a portion of the passengers by the following vessels that they did not receive subsistence money for detention after the day fixed for sailing, as specified by their contract tickets, I obliged the masters to settle with the several parties the amount of their claims.

The following sums were paid over to the passengers in my presence; viz.

s. d.
"Wanderer," from Westport 24 14 0
"Alisa," from Liverpool 33 1 6
"Hope," from Limerick 4 12 0
"Die Seelust," from Dublin 37 10 0
"Dundonald," from Limerick 26 1 3
"Hannah," from Limerick 40 0 0

Making the total amount paid 186l. 18s. 9d., viz., penalties to the Crown 21l., and compensation paid passengers 165l. 18s. 9d. sterling. The master of the "Mangerton," from Liverpool, also satisfied a similar complaint made by his passengers, but the amount paid was not ascertained.

Table No. 3. is a statement of the number of persons who have received assistance, either from their landlord or from their parish, in aid of their emigration, showing the sums paid them on landing here, by whom remitted, and through whom paid.

From this return it will be seen that 10,143 persons, equal to one fourth of the entire emigration of the season, have been sent out by public and private funds; and of this number 5,357 persons received landing money on their arrival at this port, amounting to the sum of 3,636l. 2s. 9d. sterling, 2,732l. 5s. 9d. of which was paid through this department, and 913l. 17s. by the masters of the vessels or through agents in this city. This return, when compared with that of last year, shows an increase of 6,402 in the number of persons, and in amount of remittance of 1,950l. 4s. 11d.

The number from England sent out under the superintendence of the Poor law Commissioners was 662, to whom was paid the sum of 578l. 16s. on landing, being at the rate of 1l. sterling each adult; and thirty-three were aided by their landlords, and received here to the amount of 35l.; and twelve were aided by their respective parishes, either with a free passage or a small donation of money.

From Scotland the number who were assisted was 3,465, being an increase over the same class in 1850 of 3,133. The only funds paid through this office was a remittance of 10l. from the factor of the Duke of Sutherland, in favour of a few families, twenty-four persons, sent out by his Grace in the ship "Vesper" from Thurso. Of the remainder, 986 persons were sent out by Sir James Matheson from his estate in Lewis. These emigrants were well provided with clothing and a passage to this port, and on arrival were supplied with a week's rations and a free passage to their ultimate destination, the entire expense having been defrayed through the munificence of their landlord. 1681 persons were sent out by Colonel Gordon from his estates in South Uist and Barra, who were only provided with a passage to this port. I have had occasion, in my weekly reports, to bring the destitute condition in which these emigrants were landed here under the notice of your Excellency; it will be unnecessary therefore to make further mention of them in this report. I would however beg to refer to the copy of my letter to Mr. Fleming, Colonel Gordon's agent, which will be seen at Paper No. 8., of the Appendix. Since the date of this communication a claim has been made on this department of 121l. 17s. currency, for the week's provisions issued to the passengers per "Montezuma," "Perthshire," and "Admiral," Colonel Gordon having refused to pay this charge, and for which the department became responsible in the event of his refusal. There will also, no doubt, be a further claim for those by the "Brooksby" and "Lisceard." 518 persons were sent out by his Grace the Duke of Argyle, who provided them with a free passage as far as Montreal. From that port, owing to their apparent destitution, they were forwarded by this department to Upper Canada. The remaining number, 256, were sent out by various landlords, who only appear to have provided a passage as far as this port, where nearly the whole number became chargeable on the Emigrant Fund.

The number aided in their emigration from Ireland was 5,971, being an increase of 3,544 of the same class of persons sent out in 1850. Of this number, 3,092 were sent out by various unions, and 2,879 by landlords; of the former, 2,910 received landing money varying from 5s. to 20s. sterling each adult, 2,536 of whom were paid their money through this department, amounting to 2,031l. 17s., and 374 were paid through other agents 301l. 17s. 6d., with 182 who appear to have received their money previous to embarkation. Of those sent out by their landlords, 1,275 received 429l. 2s. 9d. through this department, 453 were paid sums equal to 259l. 9s. 6d. through agents in this city, and 1,151 do not appear to have received anything beyond a free passage, or a small donation in money to enable them to emigrate.

The majority of those sent out by the Poor Law Unions and by the landlords were from the counties Clare and Kerry.

The proportion of male and female adults and children were as follows:






Children Total
By Unions 683 1,914 495 3,092
By Landlords 873 962 1,044 2,879
1,556 2,876 1,539 5,971

This shows a large preponderance of females and children when compared with males. Those sent out by the unions were generally young boys and girls from fourteen to twenty-five, and were comfortably supplied with clothing, and received a small sum of money varying from 5s. to 20s. sterling each on landing here, which was applied to defray the cost of their passage up the country.

Those sent out by their landlords were chiefly large helpless families, and in many instances widows and their children, having no friends in the country or no fixed destination, and they were generally very scantily supplied. Of those who received landing money here, the sum allowed was but 5s. each, barely sufficient to do more than meet their immediate wants on first landing; and the late season of the year in which many arrived added much to their discomfort and suffering, and materially increased the difficulty of disposing of them in a satisfactory manner.

From a reference to the records of the office, it appears that 2,147 pauper emigrants were landed at this port during the month of September, and 1,239 in October, a season of the year much too late to admit of a prospect of their all being able to secure any provision against our inclement winter.

I have had occasion, in my correspondence with Poor Law Inspectors and other parties in Ireland interested in the removal of their poor, to point out the serious responsibility which, in my opinion, rested with the parties sending out so many of these poor people at so late a period in the year, and that, if persevered in, the Colonial Legislature may feel itself obliged to adopt some protective measures; whereas, if they were sent out sufficiently early to permit there arrival here in June or early in July, if in health and able to work, the country would willingly receive them, and a benefit could accrue to all parties concerned.

The following extract from a report received from the chief emigrant agent in Canada West points out the objections against the emigration of any dependent upon labour arriving at so late a period of the season:--

"The condition of many of the emigrants, I need not inform you, was deplorable, as you have had opportunities of seeing them at Quebec before their dispersion. I felt it my duty on more than one occasion during the past season to call the attention of the Provincial Secretary to this subject. I therefore hope that the Government have adopted such measures as will prevent a recurrence of the evil. It can do no harm, however, to repeat, that in all cases "indigent settlers," who are assisted to emigrate by the unions or their landlords, should be sent out early in the season, so as to reach here before or during harvest, when work is plenty. They should also be decently clothed, and furnished with funds to enable them to proceed from Quebec to such parts of Upper Canada as they wish to settle in. Instead of this being the case, large numbers have reached Quebec penniless, and almost destitute of clothing and bedding, after the weather has become cold and rainy, and in this condition obliged to undertake a journey of many hundred miles entirely dependent upon casual charity, or such limited assistance as the Emigration Department is authorized to afford. The consequence is, suffering to all, and sickness to many, especially amongst the women and children. If those who fall sick recover, a long time must elapse before they gain sufficient strength to work, and, as their wants must be supplied, they become a burden to the communities amongst whom they reside.

Such emigrants as possessed a little capital, as well as those who were fit for domestic and farm servants, found no difficulty in settling themselves advantageously. Out of nearly 700 girls sent out by the Irish unions, who landed at this port, not a dozen remained unemployed a fortnight after their arrival; and I am quite certain that an equal, or even a greater number, would find service at good wages, if sent to this and the Gore districts during the summer of 1852."

Table No. 4. Of the Appendix contains a return of the male adult emigration, distinguishing the trades and callings. The total number of males embarked was 13,720; of these there appear but 749 artizans or tradesmen, domestic servants 94, farmers and farm servants, 6,787, labourers 5,965, and merchants, traders, and clerks, 125.

Table No. 5. Presents the usual general hospital return, showing the number of emigrant patients admitted for medical relief, with the results, at the Quarantine Establishment, up to its close on the 10th of October, at the Marine and Emigrant Hospital, Quebec, and at the General Hospital, Montreal, from which it appears that the total number of cases under treatment during the season in Canada East was 1,373, and the total deaths 139. The number of deaths, when compared with those in 1850, shows an increase of 73 persons, viz., 31 at Grosse-Isle, 28 at the Marine Hospital, Quebec, and 14 at Montreal. The increase in this city and in Montreal is in some measure to be attributed to the cholera, which made its appearance on the 24th of August, and did not altogether disappear until the end of October. The deaths among emigrants at the marine Hospital from this disease was 24, and 13 cases terminated fatally in the city. The deaths at Montreal were 27; 17 of the 23 deaths in hospital were from cholera, and the 10 other fatal cases were in lodging houses. The disease did not appear at Grosse-Isle, or among the emigrants on the passage during the past season. The whole number of cases which terminated fatally in Quebec was 271; viz., 234 citizens and 37 emigrants.

Table No. 6. shows the amount of the emigration landed in the province from the year 1829 inclusively. The total number landed at the port of Quebec since that period has been 696,129, affording an average of 30,266 per year for twenty-three years past.

The expenditure of the Emigration Department, including the expenses of the Grosse-Isle Establishment, and other charges connected with the care of the sick, amounts to 10,003l. 16s. 4d. Of this there was disbursed by the Commissariat Department for the expenses of the Quarantine Establishment, 2,510l. 12s. 6d. as follows:

s. d.
Pay of Quarantine Establishment 1,375 19 3
Supplies to hospitals 255 19 0
Miscellaneous implements and stores 46 15 0
Fuel-wood 31 17 3
Cartage 40 0 10
Steamer transport 617 10 0
Travelling and contingent expenses 87 11 4
Labour performed in washing 54 19 10
2,510 12 6
Amount expended under authority of the Board of Works for buildings and repairs at Gross-Isle 700 19 11
Estimate of the sum required to meet the medical care and treatment of the emigrants admitted to the Marine and Emigrant Hospital from the 1st May 1851 to 1st may 1852 750 0 0

Carried forward




Brought forward 3,961 12 5
Paid to Grey Nuns for ground rent of the Point St. Charles Hospital, Montreal, to 1st July 1852 158 0 0
The balance was disbursed for emigration purposes through the agents of this department, as follows:

Return of the Number of Persons who appear to have received Assistance to emigrate; also showing the Number who received Landing Money, from whom, and through whom paid, during the Season of 1851.
Date Vessel Whence No. received Free Passage Only No. received Landing Money with
Free Passage
By whom assisted Paid by Emigration Department Sterling Paid by Agents, &c. Sterling
s. d. s. d.
May 8 Laurel London - 35 Poor Law Unions, &c. 64 6 0 -
" John Francis Cork - 155 Kenmare Union 155 0 0 -
 "  "  " - 14 Marquis of Lansdowne 12 3 9 -
May 9 Brilliant Ditto - 147 Ditto 52 19 5 -
" Dahlia Plymouth - 8 Parish - 7 0 0
May 11 Perseverance Stockton - 4 Ditto - 3 0 0
" India New Ross 85 - Landlords - -
" Governor Limerick 11 - Earl Dnraven - -
May 12 Primrose Ditto 8 - Colonel Vandeleur - -
May 14 Ava Southampton - 58 Poor Law Unions, &c. - 85 0 0
May 29 Collina Gloucester - 224 Cheltenham Union - 166 10 0
" Dominica Cork - 100 Marquis of Lansdowne 41 15 7 -
" Mary and Ellen Dublin - 15 Landlord - 29 14 0
" " " 90 - Various Landlords - -
30 May Glenlyon New Ross 260 - Earl Fitzwilliam - -
" " " 70 - Various Landlords - -
" Envoy Londonderry - 58 Strabane Union 29 0 0 -
" " " - 29 Derry Union 15 10
May 31 Thompson Sligo 40 - Lord North - -
May 30 Deborah Londonderry - 6- Mr. Charley 30 0 0 -
June 5 Countess of Arran Donegal - 160
June 1 Aleyone Dublin - 71 Carrick Union - 79 17 6
" " " - 88 Marquis of Bath - 44 0 0
" Jeanie Johnston Tralee - 26 Sir Richard Denny 25 0 0 -
" " " 25 - Mr. Donovan - -
June 5 Anglesea Liverpool 50 - Mr. Cavanagh; County Carlow - -
" Hotspur Cork - 98 Kenmare Union 98 0 0 -
" " " - 15 Marquis of Lansdowne 4 18 0 -
" Ann Donegal 81 - Landlords - -
" Hornet Limerick 5 - Ditto - -
" Secret Bideford 12 - Parish - -
June 8 Wave Dublin - 75 Landlords - 40 0 0
" " " - 119 Abbeyleix Union - 59 10 0
" " " - 51 Carrickmacross Union - 47 10 0
" " " - 66 Donoghmore Union 33 0 0 -
June 14 Cresswell Cork - 26 Sir Richard Denny 26 0 0 -
" Helen London - 70 Dover Union 59 10 0 -
" Milicete New Ross 37 - Landlords - -
" British Queen Limerick 14 - Mr. Spaight - -
June 15 Ottawa Waterford 4 - Mr. Power, County Waterford - -
June 19 Ariel Kilrush 4 - Kilrush Union - -
June 20 Northumbria New Ross 81 - Landlords - -
June 25 Safeguard Dublin 33 - Ditto - -
" " " - 59 Marquis of Bath - 40 2 6
" Prompt Cork - 102 Marquis of Lansdowne 39 6 0 -
June 29 Springfield New Ross 10 - Mr. Talbot, County Waterford - -
July 3 Mangerton Liverpool 50 - Mr. Shaw - -
" " " - 60 Shillelogt Union 30 0 0 -
" Anna Maria Limerick 50 - Mr. Henry, County Tipperary - -
" Lord Elgin New Ross 58 - Landlords - -
July 11 British Queen Limerick 5 - Earl of Limerick - -
July 14 Sprite ditto 24 - Mr. Flanagan - -
July 15 Wolfville Glasgow 69 - Sir James Matheson - -
" Urgent Troon 370
July 16 Prince George - 203
" Susan Glasgow 10 - Mr. Orme - -
July 17 Edward kenny Limerick 11 - Landlords - -
July 18 Die Seelust Dublin - 67 Mr. Shirley,. &c. - 36 5 0
" " " - 57 Marquis of Bath - 28 13 0
" Giffeon Cork - 38 Marquis of Lansdowne 13 1 0 -
" " " - 34 Kenmare Union 34 0 0 -
" " " - 28 Listowel Union 14 0 0 -
July 19 Huron Tralee - 116 Dingle Union 116 0 0 -
" Agenora Dublin - 133 Rathdrum Union - 115 0 0
" " " - 40 Mr. Shirley - 20 0 0
" Nereid Limerick 6 - Colonel Vandeleur - -
July 23 Barlow Stornaway 287 - Sir James matheson - -
July 25 Sisters London - 8 Lord Corrington 10 0 0 -
" " " - 94 Poor Law Union 74 10 0 -
" Louisa Southampton - 86 ditto - 67 0
July 31 Sesostris Glasgow - 11 Stranorlar Union 5 10 0 -
" " " 7 - Sir James Matheson - -
Aug 2 Vesper Thurso 28 24 Duke of Sutherland 10 0 0 -
Aug 10 Tay London - 26 Parish 28 0 0 -
Aug 13 Jamaica Greenock 104 - Landlords - -
Aug 16 Canmore Glasgow 16 - ditto - -
Aug 18 Albion Cork - 52 Mr. Mahony - 20 15 0
Aug 22 Laura Campbell Limerick 43 - Landlords - -
" Birman Greenock 130 - Duke of Argyle - -
" " " 50 - Sir James Matheson - -
Aug 26 Conrad Ditto 388 - Duke of Argyle - -
Aug 28 Ellen Liverpool 100 - Mr. Lothian, County Glengarry - -
" Brooksby Stornaway 285 - Colonel Gordon - -
Aug 27 Charles Walton Southampton - 57 Poor Law Unions - 24 0 0
Aug 28 Albion Cork - 124 Dingle Union 124 0 0 -
Aug 29 Clio ditto - 65 Listowel Union 17 13 6 -
" " " - 50 Marquis of Lansdowne 15 4 3 -
Aug 30 Montezuma Stornaway 440 - Colonel Gordon - -
Sept 10 Perthshire ditto 437
" St. Laurence Cork - 101 Dingle Union 101 0 0 -
Sept 14 Jane Black Limerick - 5 Kilrush Union 3 9 0 -
" " " - 291 Ennistymon Union 188 8 0 -
" Jessy ditto - 81 ditto 58 19 0 -
" " " - 106 Kilrush Union 73 1 0 -
" Primrose ditto - 107 ditto 72 12 0 -
Sept 25 John Francis Cork - 13 Listowel Union 3 2 6 -
" " " - 7 Marquis of Lansdowne 2 5 5 -
Sept 27 Dominica ditto - 127 ditto 44 0 3 -
Sept 28 John Bull London - 25 Landlord 25 0 0 -
" Canada Galway - 339 Clifden Union 326 0 0 -
" Chieftain Valventia - 213 Cahireiveen Union 213 0 0 -
Sept 30 Venilia ditto - 152 ditto 152 0 0 -
" " " - 16 Dingle Union 16 0 0 -
" Jane Watson Limerick - 127 Kilrush Union 73 1 0 -
Oct 1 Admiral Stornaway 413 - Colonel Gordon - -
" Waterhen Galway 178 - Scariff Union - -
Oct 4 Try-again Cork - 29 ditto 11 12 0 -
" Tottenham ditto - 45 ditto 19 4 0 -
" Industry Cork - 229 Marquis of Lansdowne 70 0 0 -
Oct 18 Urania ditto - 38 ditto 12 9 1 -
" " " - 67 Kilrush Union 48 15 0 -
" Liseeard Stornaway 104 - Colonel Gordon - -
Oct 25 Pallas Valentia - 136 Marquis of Lansdowne 40 0 0 -
Total 4,786 5,357 2,732 5 9 913 17 0

No. 6.

Comparative Statement of the Number of Emigrants arrived at the Port of Quebec since the Year 1829 inclusive.

Country 5 Years from 1829 to 1833 5 Years from 1834 to 1838 5 Years from 1839 to 1843 5 Years from 1844 to 1848 1849 1850 1851
England 43,386 28,624 30,813 60,453 3,980 9,887 96,677
Ireland 102,264 54,898 74,981 112,192 23,126 17,976 22,381
Scotland 20,143 10,998 16,289 12,767 4,984 2,879 7,042
Continent of Europe 15 485 - 9,728 436 849 870
Lower Ports, &c. 1,889 1,346 1,777 1,219 968 701 1,106
Total 167,697 96,351 123,860 196,359 38,494 32,292 41,076

Grand Total 696,129
Emigration Department, Quebec, December 1851
A.C. Buchanan, Chief Agent.

No. 7.

Extracts from the Notes appended to the periodical Reports of Arrivals of Passenger Ships at the Ports of Quebec and Montreal in the Season of 1851.

From the 1st to the 19th of May

Note.-3,902 emigrants have arrived from the opening of the navigation to the 19th instant, and all landed in excellent health; the vessels having made most favourable passages; the average being under 34 days. Several made the run to the entrance of the Gulf in from 10 to 12 days, but were detained afterwards by ice, from which they all got through without any material damage.

The deaths on the passage were but 20, chiefly children, and but 11 were detained at the quarantine station, all of whom have since been discharged.

The emigrants are chiefly of the agricultural class; the male adults are classed as follows:-921 farmers, 408 labourers, 134 mechanics, and 18 domestic servants.

On board the "John Francis," from Cork, there were 155 persons, sent out by the Kenmare Union, to whom were paid through this department 20s. sterling each on landing and 34 families-148 souls-were sent out by Lord Lansdowne, for whose benefit money was remitted through the Emigration Officer at Cork to this department, and paid to them on landing here at the rate of from 1l. to 2l. each family, with a free passage to Montreal. They have principally come out to join friends and relations in the United States.

A number of the emigrants per the "Laurel" and "Ava" had engaged their passages through to their final destinations previous to leaving England, as follows:--

To Montreal 9 persons, 6 adults
  Kingston 19 " 13 "
  Cobourg 2 " 2 "
  Toronto 40 " 31 "
  Hamilton 30 " 22 "
  Buffalo 2 " 2 "
  Cleveland 2 " 2 "
  Sandusky 1 " 1 "
  Detroit 10 " 6 "
  Milwaukie 6 " 5 "
  Chicago 2 " 2 "
123 93

The total sum paid as landing money (the pauper emigrants included) under the immediate superintendence of this department was 367l. 6s. sterling, which enabled them at once to proceed up the country.

These vessels have all been well found, and not a single complaint of any kind has been made by any of the passengers.

Employment is abundant in almost every section of the province. 1,000 labourers are now required on the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Junction Railroad, on the sections between Melbourne and Sherbrooke, to whom the contractors offer from 4s. to a dollar per day; domestic servants and farm labourers are also much sought after.

From the 20th to the 31st of May.

Note.-5,336 emigrants have arrived at this port during the period between the 20th and 31st of May. They have landed in good health; the deaths during the passage being but 34, viz.:--

9 adults
13 children
12 infants

The emigrants are generally of a respectable class, and all emigrated voluntarily with the exception of 872, who were sent out by various landlords and parish unions, some of whom were paid, under the superintendence of this office, from 10s. to 1l. each on arrival here.

The male adults were classed as follows:--

Farmers 1,052
Labourers 727
Servants 23
Mechanics 201

Complaints were made by the passengers per "Ailsa," from Liverpool, for detention at that port after the day fixed for sailing, and the master paid to them the sum of 33l. 1s. 6d. sterling as subsistence money shown by their contract tickets to be legally due. A complaint was also made as to the flour issued to the passengers which was sour and unwholesome. Proceedings were instituted against Captain Poole, and he was fined in the mitigated penalty of 5l. and costs; it having been proved that he was kind and humane to his passengers, and that the provisions had been regularly inspected by the proper officer in Liverpool. This vessel was chartered by James Mackay and Co., Regent Road, Liverpool, several of whose contract tickets were found to be regularly filled up; the sum charged for the passage not being stated, but in the places where the amount should be entered in figures the word "full" was written. As this is evidently a violation of the 47th clause of the passenger Act, these tickets have been forwarded to the Government Emigration officer in Liverpool, in order that he may adopt such steps as the circumstances of the case would appear to justify. A report of the case, accompanied by an affidavit, has also been transmitted to the Emigration Commission in London.

Proceedings were also taken against Captain Gorman, of the "Jane Black," from Limerick, for an excess of eight passengers over his legal complement. He was fined 2l. sterling each, with costs, being the lowest penalty, in consideration of his having already paid 2l. 10s. currency each, under the Provincial Act, for having eight uncertified persons on board.

On board the ship "Henry Tanner," from London, there were a number of very respectable emigrants. This vessel was fitted up in a much superior manner to any that have ever arrived at this port. Even the steerage berths were all fitted as separate cabins, painted and numbered for every family and single person on board, and the passengers were all placed in messes, and provided for in a most liberal and comfortable manner by the owner, Captain Thomas Lightfoot, who came out in the vessel and undertook the superintendence and management of the emigrants during the passage. They all bore willing testimony to the excellence of his arrangements and the satisfactory manner in which his engagements with them were carried out.

The expenditure for transport incurred by this department has been considerably reduced this season as compared with the corresponding period of last year.

Abundance of employment exists, and is likely to continue throughout the province, especially in the eastern townships, where the absorption of labour by the railroad now making in that district should attract a large number of emigrant labourers, but there is a great difficulty in inducing them to proceed thither, notwithstanding the offer of high wages,-4s. 6d. and 5s. a day.

From the 1st to the 14th of June.

Note.-5,222 emigrants landed at this port during the period embraced in this return, all in good health. The mortality on the passage was very small, only amounting to 24; viz, 5 men, 5 women, 7 children, and 7 infants. The number of admissions to the Quarantine Hospital during eh same period was 35; viz., 12 men, 12 women, and 11 children.

The emigrants consist chiefly of farmers and agricultural labourers. Many of the former appear in comfortable circumstances. I estimate, from the information received on boarding the vessels, that fully one half are proceeding to the United States, a large proportion of whom have friends and relations there, and others who have no particular destination are attracted thither under the idea of getting better wages than by remaining in Canada.

The male adults are classed on the passenger lists as follows:--

Farmers 922
Labourers 762
Mechanics 132
Servants 8

Of the whole number, 1,089 persons appear to have been aided in their emigration, and 4,133 came out voluntarily. Of those who received aid, 445 persons were paid, over and above a free passage, sums on landing varying from 10s. to 20s. sterling each, with the exception of those by the "Countess of Arran" from Donegal, 160 in number, sent out by their landlord, Mr. Charley, who remitted 20l sterling for distribution among them, and which was applied to the purchasing of provisions for them. The able-bodied men were sent tot he railroad work at Melbourne eastern townships, and the others, consisting of helpless women and children, were assisted to proceed to their friends, the greater part of whom resided in the United States. The total amount paid through this office amounted to 261l 10s. sterling.

Employment continues abundant in almost every section of the province, and all disposed to work find no difficulty in procuring it. Labourers in this neighbourhood are receiving 3s. per day, and on the railway at Sherbrooke as high as 4s. 6d. and 5s.

The number assisted from the several vessels included in this return was 693, equal to 515 adult persons. Of this number, 276 were from three vessels, the "Countess of Arran" and the "Ann" from Donegal, and the "Transit" from Westport, being within 112 of the whole number on board. The total outlay for transport was 64l 7s. 6d.

From the 15th of June to the 12th of July.

Note.-The emigrants included in this return have all landed in good health. The masters appear to have acted kindly, and with attention to the health and comfort of those placed under their charge, nor were any complaints made by the passengers. The deaths during the passage were but 8.

The passengers consist chiefly of agriculturists, and a large portion have emigrated to join their relations in this province and the United States. Of the whole number, 4,378 emigrated voluntarily, and 456 were assisted by their landlords.

The male adults are classed as follows:--

Farmers 881
Labourers 779
Mechanics 86
Servants 23

On board the "Maranham," "Anna Maria," and "Dundonald," from Limerick, there were a number of helpless families, the females and children being largely in excess of the male adults. Those by the "Mangerton," from Liverpool, and "Safeguard," from Dublin, show a somewhat similar excess. The latter received a small sum through Mr. Miley's agent in this city; but insufficient to enable them to reach their friends. Of the 148 persons on board this vessel, 95 were forwarded up the country free. The whole number of persons assisted from the several vessels in this return was 573 souls, equal to 413 adults, at an outlay of about 50l.

Employment continues abundant in every section of the province, and all able and willing to work can obtain it without difficulty.

From the 14th to the 31st of July.

Note.-6,674 emigrants landed at this port from the 14th to 31st ultimo in good health, with the exception of a few cases of small-pox and measles on board the Glasgow and Liverpool ships, which detained the passengers a few days in quarantine. The mortality was, however, but small; the deaths at sea were 33, viz., 2 men, 6 women, 19 children, and 6 infants. From the July monthly return of the Quarantine Hospital it appears the total admissions during that period were 143, deaths 12, and but 28 cases were remaining in the hospital on the 31st ultimo, which out of an emigration of over 9,000 souls (the number inspected at that station during the month of July) affords very satisfactory evidence of the healthy condition in which the emigrants are arriving this season, notwithstanding the length to which the passage was in some cases extended, the average being 44 days.

Of the total number in this return 4,983 appear to have emigrated voluntarily, and 1,691 were sent out by their landlords or by parish authorities. Of the former the largest party (936 souls) were from the Island of Lewis, sent out by Sir James Matheson, who amply provided for them during the passage, and forwarded them free to their several destinations; about 400 proceeded to Sherbrooke, eastern townships, and the remainder to Western Canada. 407 persons were from various unions in England and Ireland, for whose benefit the sum of 309l 5s. sterling had been remitted to this department for distribution among them on landing. Of those from the port of Dublin, 297 received from other parities in this city the sum of 193l 18s. sterling, and the remaining 51 persons were sent out by various landed proprietors, who merely provided them with a free passage to this port.

Of those who emigrated voluntarily, a large number of the Irish had received assistance from their friends in this country and the United States. The greater part of those by the ships "Spartan," "Justyn," and "Sesostrs," from the Clyde, 1,070 persons, were respectable intelligent people, chiefly farmers and a few mechanics. They all proceeded to Western Canada to settle, with the exception of a few families on board the "Justyn," who were going to their relations in Michigan and Illinois. There were also some very respectable persons on board the "Sisters," from London, and the "Louisa," from Southampton, 118 passengers by these vessels had secured their passage in England to various parts in Canada West, and 37 to Buffalo and Chicago.

Among the emigrants included in this return there appears the unusual nubmer of 554 persons from Cape Breton. It appears these parties were all Scotch Highlanders, or their descendants, who had been settled there for a number of years; but finding the climate too severe, and unfavourable to agricultural operations, had disposed of their farms and removed to this colony, with the intention of settling in the western part of the province; they, with the exception of a few families, appear to possess some little capital, and, from their previous habits, are likely to prove good and valuable settlers.

The German emigrants per "Anna Maria" and "Providentia," from Hamburg, were chiefly agricultural labourers and famers. With the exception of about 30, who were going to the German settlements in the Wellington District, they all proceeded direct to Buffalo.

Employment continues abundant throughout the country, and labourers obtain highly remunerative wages. Female domestic servants are also much wanted in the country settlements.

The number forwarded free at this agency among the several vessels reported in this return, including the convalescents from hospital, was 723 persons, equal to 514 adults, at an average charge of 2s. 6d. each adult.

From the 1st to the 31st of August.

Note.-5,459 emigrants arrived during the month of August, and, with the exception of on board three vessels, they all landed in good health. The deaths on the passage were 46, viz., 9 adults and 37 children; 18 of which occurred on board the "Abbeylands," from Liverpool, 7 on the "Jamaica," from Glasgow, 6 on the "Laura Campbell," from Limerick, and 6 on the "Ellen," from Liverpool. The diseases most prevalent were measles and small-pox.

Of the whole number, 3,452 emigrated voluntarily, and 2,007 were sent out by landlords and by parish unions; 1,565 were Scotch (Highlanders), 359 Irish, and 83 English.

Of those from Scotland, 725 were sent out by Colonel Gordon from South Uist, in the ships "Brooksby" and "Montezuma," who provided them with a free passage and provisions to this port; the party consisting of 215 adults, 222 females, and 288 children. From the information received from the masters of the vessels and from the people themselves, it appears they were entirely destitute of money or provisions; but few of the men could speak English; and, as they were all desirous of proceeding to he western part of Upper Canada, they were forwarded direct to Hamilton at the expense of the Emigrant Fund. On board the "Conrad" and "Birman" were 518 persons, from Mall and Tyree, sent out by his Grace the Duke of Argyle, who provided them with a free passage to Montreal, where, on arrival, as they presented the same appearance of destitution as those from South Uist, they were all sent free to Hamilton. On board the "Birman" were 50 souls, the last of Sir James Matheson's party from Lewis, who were all well provided for and forwarded to their destination (Lingwick, eastern townships,) at Sir James's expense. The remainder of the Scotch emigrants who were assisted to emigrate by their landlords were on board the "Vesper," "Jamaica," and "Ellen." A number of them obtained employment about Montreal, and the others with families were assisted by this department to proceed to their friends in Lancaster, Toronto, and Hamilton.

Of those sent out from Ireland, 124, per "Albion," were from the Dingle Union, who were paid on landing 1l sterling each; and on board the "Clio," from the same port, were 83 from the Listowel Union, and 12 families (57 persons) were sent out by the marquis of Lansdowne, Each of these parties expected to receive a sum of money through this office; but no remittance had been made on their account. In consequence of their disappointment, and being entirely without means, they were all forwarded free to where they could procure employment. 52 persons on board the "Albion" (Driscoll) were sent out by Mr. Mahony, and received here a small sum equal to 10s. sterling each adult and 5s. each child, at assist them to proceed up the country. The remainder, 43, per "Laura Campbell," received only a free passage to this port.

The English emigrants per "Tay" and "Charles Walton," 83 in number, were paid 1l sterling each on landing.

The number of persons forwarded free (including the whole of Colonel Gordon's Highlanders) number 1,483 persons, equal to 1,125 adults, being about one fourth of the entire number. A large number of the Irish assisted consisted of women and children coming out to join their friends, who in almost every case had sent home the means of paying their passage to this port.

Employment continues abundant throughout the province.

From the 1st to the 30th of September.

Note.-5,556 emigrants landed at this port during the month of September, and in good health. The deaths on the passage were 29, viz. 10 adults, 8 children, and 11 infants. Of the whole number, 3,405 emigrated voluntarily, and 2,151 were sent out chiefly from unions in Ireland. The following statement will show the number sent out from each union, with the amount of funds paid to them through this office on their landing here:

Ship Whence Union Number Amount
s. d.
St. Laurence Cork Dingle 105 105 0 0
Jane Black Limerick Kilrush 5 3 9 0
" " Ennistymon 291 188 8 0
Jessie " " 81 58 19 0
" " Kilrush 106 73 1 0
Primrose " " 107 72 12 0
John Francis Cork Listowel 13 3 2 6
Chieftain Valentia Cahlreiveen[sic] 213 213 0 0
Canada Galway Clifden 339 326 0 0
Venilia Valentia Dingle 16 16 0 0
" " Cahireiveen[sic] 152 152 0 0
Jane Watson Limerick Kilrush 127 73 1 0
1,555 1,284 12 6

The majority of these emigrants were young men and women, from 16 to 25 years of age, with the exception of those by the "Chieftain," from the Cahireiveen Union, consisting of families and young girls from 8 to 14. They mostly proceeded to Upper Canada, and the remainder to relatives in the United States. The whole are classed as follows:

Male adults 233
Female adults 1,049
Children under 14 years 266
Infants 7
1,555 souls

On board the "John Francis" and "Dominica," from Cork, were 42 families, numbering 134 souls, who were sent out by the marquis of Lansdowne. The sum of 40l 15s. was remitted to this department for their benefit, equal to about 20s. sterling each family, in addition to which they were provided with a free passage to Montreal. A great majority of these people went to the United States.

By a return received from the chief agent at Toronto it appears that after considerable exertion to scatter the pauper females that lately proceeded to that quarter, and through the influence and assistance of the clergy of the respective denominations, they have all succeeded in securing employment. It is to be regretted that the parties interested in sending out these people had not arranged for their arrival in this country at a more favourable season. Emigrants of this class should arrive here, if possible, within the months of May and June, and in no case later than July, as then employment of all kinds is most abundant.

By the "Perthshire," from Stornaway, there were 437 Highlanders sent out by Colonel Gordon. They consisted of large helpless families, the great majority of them being females and children, and presented the same evidence of destitution as those by the "Brooksby" and "Montezuma," referred to in the report of the last month, many not having even decent clothing, much less sufficient to protect them during a Canadian winter. But few of the men could speak English, and as they had friends in Western Canada, and no suitable employment offering here, they were forwarded to Hamilton by this department, where a number obtained employment on the railroad.

Of the emigrants who came out voluntarily, a large proportion have emigrated to join their friends; and I estimate that about one-half have gone to the United States.

Employment continues abundant throughout the province on the various railroads in course of construction.

The number of persons assisted, exclusively of Colonel Gordon's party, was 822, equal to 649 adults. They were chiefly women and children, who emigrated to join their friends.

From the 1st to the 31st of October.

Note.-The number of emigrants arrived during the month of October was 4,287, bing more than double the number landed during the same month in any previous season. They arrived in good health, the deaths on the passage being but 11, viz. Two men, three women, and six children.

On a reference to the numbers in this return, it will be seen that the females and children show a large excess over the number of male adults, being 2,895 of the former against 1,202 of the latter, a disproportion most unusual, which is to be accounted for chiefly among that class of emigrants whose removal has been prompted by the direct interest of their landlord or parish union. The male adults are classed as follows:--

Farmers 477
Labourers 670
Mechanics 49
Servants 6

Of the total number 3,043 appear to have emigrated voluntarily, and 1,245 were sent out by landlords and poor law unions. The following Table will show the numbers, and by whom sent out, with the amount paid each on arrival here:--

Vessel Whence By whom assisted Number Amount allowed each Total
Sterling s. d.
Admiral Stornaway Colonel Gordon 413 Nil. Nil.
Waterhen Galway Scariff Union 178 10s. Paid at Galway
Try-again Cork " 29 8s. 30 16 0
Tottenham " " 45 8s.
Industry " Marquis of Lansdowne 235 5s. 60 15 0
Lisceard Stornaway Colonel Gordon 104 Nil. Nil.
Urania Cork Kilrush Union 67 15s. 78 15 0
" " Marquis of Lansdowne 38 5s. 12 15 0
Pallas Valentia " 136 5s. 35 0 0
1,245 188 1 0

The emigrants per the "Admiral" and "Lisceard" from Stornaway complete the number of 1,681 persons, the expense of whose removal to this port has been defrayed by their landlord, Colonel Gordon, reference to which has been made in the previous monthly reports. The whole of these people had to be forwarded at the expense of this department to Hamilton.

It is much to be regretted that those landlords and guardians of the several unions in Ireland who avail themselves of the emigration to this port should have delayed in sending them out until so late in the season, when they are almost certain to be exposed to hardship, if not much suffering. Many, from their previous habits and other causes, become a charge upon the charitable public in our cities, already overburthened by their own poor, during the inclemency of our Canadian winter. These difficulties may be avoided, and the country would receive with willingness what they now are disposed to view with hostility, by having these people sent out in proper season, as all who arrive here previously to the month of August were satisfactorily disposed of, and succeeded in securing profitable employment.

Those who emigrated voluntarily came out chiefly to join friends; about one half I estimate have gone to the United States.

Owing to the late period in the season, and the inability of parties to reach their friends, or to such sections of the country as would be likely to afford them employment during the winter, I found it necessary to relax the rule in respect to free transport. The whole number relieved was 1,210 persons, 803 adults. Many of them were convalescents from hospital.

This return closes the emigration for this season.
Emigration Department, Quebec,
December 1851.

Despatch from the Right Honourable Earl Grey,
Secretary of State.
No. 1.
(No. 654)

Copy of a Despatch from Earl Grey to the Earl of Elgin
Downing Street, November 4, 1851.
My Lord,

I have to acknowledge the receipt of your Despatch of the 9th September, No. 107, transmitting the copy of a letter from the Chief Agent of Immigration in Canada, reporting the destitute condition in which certain emigrants from the estates of Colonel Gordon of Cluny, have been lately sent to the province; and I have to inform your Lordship that, having caused an inquiry to be instituted into the alleged circumstances of this case, I learn that Colonel Gordon denies having promised to these emigrants free passages beyond Quebec, and refuses to incur any further expense on their account. As proprietors of estates in this county cannot legally be required to provide emigrants with pecuniary means to assist them on their arrival at the place of destination, I have no authority to prevent a repetition of the proceeding to which you have called my attention. I can only express my regret that the emigrants from South Uist should have been sent to Canada in a manner which I regard as so objectionable.

I have, &c.
(Signed) Grey.

The Earl of Elgin and Kincardine,
&c. &c. &c.

New Brunswick

Despatches from Lieut.-Governor Sir E. Head.

No. 1.

(No. 29.)
Copy of a Despatch from Lieut.-Governor Sir E. Head to Earl Grey.
Government House, Fredericton, New Brunswick,
May 15, 1851.
(Received June 10, 1851.)
My Lord,

I have the honour to enclose the ship returns of the following vessels,-"Speed," "St. Lawrence," "Susan," "Onyx," "Londonderry," together with copies of two letters addressed by Mr. Perley to the provincial secretary. That of the 5th of May contains some statements which will, I doubt not, be considered by Her Majesty's Commissioners for Colonial Lands and Emigration.

I have, &c.
(Signed) Edmund Head.

The Right Hon. Earl Grey,
&c. &c. &c.

Enclosure 1 in No. 1.

Government Emigration Office, St. John,
May 5, 1851.

I have the honour to report the arrival of the ship "Speed" from Liverpool, and the "St. Lawrence" and "Susan" from Cork, with passengers, ship returns for each of which are enclosed.

The "Onyx," from Glasgow, has also arrived with twelve passengers. The whole of the passengers by these four vessels are Irish.

The ship "Speed" was chartered for passengers by John S. DeWolf of Liverpool, who, from the contract tickets, appears to be a passage broker, although the tickets are signed for him by George Rippard and Son.

Of the passengers by the "Speed," about 180 had paid their passages to Boston. Besides the usual contract tickets they had orders from George Rippard and Son on Mr. John M'Grath of this city (a copy of one of which is inclosed) for a passage from hence to Boston.

Mr. M'Grath declined to forward these parties, stating that he had no knowledge of Messrs, Rippard and Son, nor any letter of advice from them.

On examining the contract tickets I found that fifty-five of the passengers had tickets which entitled them to be landed at Boston; and on my representing this to Messrs. Wiggins and Son, the highly respectable owners of the "Speed," they at once forwarded these parties to Boston by steamer at their own expense.

About forty of the passengers also went to Boston, paying their own passage from hence, which was a great hardship upon them.

The residue of those who ought to have been forwarded by Mr. De Wolf were this morning sent to Boston by Messrs. Salter, his correspondents here on his account. During their detention here part of these emigrants were supported in the almshouse, and the expense thus incurred Messrs. Salter have promised to refund.

The conduct of Mr. De Wolf in this matter appears to be highly reprehensible. He seems to have lent himself to Messrs. Rippard and Son, who for former frauds and misconduct have been deprived of their license and prevented from acting as passage brokers. The fact that Mr. De Wolf allows persons so notorious as Messrs. Rippard to pursue their fraudulent practices under cover of his name, should be sufficient to deprive him also of a license as a passage broker; and I trust the gross misconduct in this case will be brought under the especial notice of the Land and Emigration Commissioners.

It is proper for me to remark that the contract tickets in the case of the "Speed" that were properly filled up for Boston, and which enabled me to call upon the owners of the vessel to forward the persons bearing them to that port, were chiefly issued by Wm. Maurne, passage broker, of 6, Regent Road, Clarence Dock, Liverpool. Those tickets issued by the Rippards expressed that the passengers were to be landed at St. John, after which they were left to obtain a passage to Boston through the order on Mr. M'Grath, of which that gentleman disclaimed all knowledge whatever.

I have, &c.
(Signed) M.H. Perley,
Her Majesty's Emigration Officer.
(In the margin is this list)

Speed 218
St. Lawrence 121
Susan 91
Onyx 12
Total 442

(Copy.) No. 66.

St Patrick Emigration Office, 134, Waterloo Road,
Liverpool, March 24, 1851.

We engage that the parties herein named shall be provided with a steerage passage to Boston from St. John, New Brunswick, by the emigration line, with fifty pounds of baggage on the canal and railroads, and one hundred pounds on the rivers and lakes, free to each full passenger.

For George Rippard and Son,
(Signed) Charles Rippard.
J. M'Grath, Esq., St. John.

(In the margin this list)

Michl. Ahern 20
Johannah Ahern 30
Lawrence Ahern 8
Ellen Ahern 6
Mary Ahern 5

Enclosure 2 in No. 1.

Government Emigration Office, St. John,
May 10, 1851.

I have to report the arrival of the barque "Londonderry," from Londonderry, with 162 passengers, and enclose a ship return.

Among the passengers is a deaf and dumb girl, whom Dr. Harding certifies is likely to become a parish charge. A bond will therefore be given to indemnify the province under the Provincial Act of 1850.

The wisdom of the provision which requires such a bond in certain cases is apparent in this case, as in several previous instances.

I have, &c.
(Signed) M.H. Perley.

The Hon. J.R. Partelow,
Provincial Secretary.

(No. 34.) No. 2

Copy of a despatch from Lieut.-Governor Sir E. Head to Earl Grey.
Government House, Fredericton, N.B.
June 6, 1851. (Received June 23, 1851.)
My Lord,

I have the honour to transmit the enclosed copy of a letter from the emigration officers at St. John, together with the usual ship return for the ship "Pomona," arrived at that port from Liverpool.

I have, &c.
(Signed) Edmund Head.

The Right Hon. Earl Grey,
&c. &c. &c.

(In the margin beside the name of the ship) May 27, 1851.

Enclosure in No. 2.

Government Emigration Office,
St. John, May 27, 1851.

I have to report the arrival of the ship "Pomona" from Liverpool, with 315 passengers, and enclose ship return.

During the voyage a child died of what was supposed to be scarlet rash.

When the ship arrived at the quarantine ground, another child of the same family was found to be very ill with smallpox, of which it died a few hours after the ship came to anchor. In consequence the whole of the passengers on board were landed at Patridge[sic] Island, where they were very comfortably accommodated, and underwent a thorough cleansing and purification.

No sickness having appeared among them, about 150 were discharged yesterday, and embarked at once in the steamer "Maid of Erin," to proceed to the United States.

A large proportion of those who remain will also proceed to Boston, to which place their passages were paid before leaving England.

The passengers by this vessel were nearly all from Ireland, and their passages were chiefly paid by remittances from friends and relations in the United States.

I have, &c.
(Signed) M.H. Perley,
H.M. Emigration Officer.

The Hon. J.R. Partelow,
Provincial Secretary.

(No. 35.) No. 3.

Copy of a Despatch from Lieut.-Governor Sir E. Head to Earl Grey.
Government House, Fredericton, N.B.,
June 11, 1851.
(Received July 3, 1851.)
My Lord,

I have the honour to enclose, for your Lordship's information, a copy of a letter from Mr. Perley, reporting the arrival of the emigrant vessels "Field Marshal Radetzky," "Barbara," and "Garland," at St. John.

I also transmit the usual returns for these ships.

I have, &c.
(Signed) Edmund Head

The Right Hon. Earl Grey,
&c. &c. &c.

(In the margin beside Field Marshal Radetzky is June 5, 1851.)

Enclosure in No. 3.

Government Emigration Office, St. John,
June 5, 1851.

I have to report the arrival of the "Field Marshal Radetzky" from Cork, the "Barbara" from Londonderry, and the "Garland" from Berehaven, with passengers, and now enclose a ship return for each.

The passengers by these vessels were all in good health, except three persons in the "Field Marshal Radetzky" who were landed at Patridge Island, and are now recruiting.

In the "Barbara" from Londonderry there were two male idiots, of the respective ages of 26 and 29 years, for whom bonds have been required under the provisions of the Act of Assembly; but as those bonds are only in the penalty of fifty pounds currency, they will afford very inadequate security if these idiots become chargeable upon the province during the rest of their lives.

I have, &c.
(Signed) M.H. Perley,
H.M. Emigration Officer.

The Hon. J.R. Partelow,
Provincial Secretary.

(No. 38.) No. 4

Copy of a Despatch from Lieut.-Governor Sir E. Head to Earl Grey.
Government House, Fredericton, N.B.
June 20, 1851.
(Received July 8, 1851.)
My Lord,

I have the honour to transmit copies of a correspondence between myself and Mr. Perley on the subject of emigration.

I enclose these letters, in order that the propositions contained in them may be brought under the consideration of the Commissioners for Emigration.

I have, &c.
(Signed) Edmund Head

The Right Hon. Earl Grey,
&c. &c. &c.

(In the margin are these dates: June 16, 1851, June 19, 1851.)

Enclosure 1 in No. 4.

Government Emigration Office, St. John's,[sic]
June 16, 1851.

I have the honour to state that, up to this date, about 1,700 emigrants have arrived at this port the present season, nearly the whole of whom have proceeded, or are about to proceed, to the United States.

In this city labourers are in demand and wages high; for female servants the inquiries are unceasing.

The applications from the country for farm labourers and domestic servants, both male and female, are numerous, and constantly increasing, but up to this moment I have not been able to persuade a single emigrant to proceed to the rural districts.

Very many inquiries are made for young persons from fourteen years of age upwards, and I believe that decent families would be willing to take healthy children even younger than fourteen, and bring them up properly.

It has occurred to me that the want of domestic servants, now beginning to be felt both in town and in country, might be supplied from the great numbers of pauper children who are being supported at the public expense in the workhouses of England.

Healthy English children of sufficient age might at present be sent to this province with the almost absolute certainty of their being engaged immediately as domestic servants; and I venture to suggest for his Excellency's consideration the propriety of informing the Poor Law Commissioners for England of the demand for the labour of young persons in New Brunswick, with the view of arrangements being entered into for sending to this province a reasonable number of such persons before the close of the present season.

I have, &c.
(Signed) M.H. Perley.

R.T. Pennefather, Esq.
&c. &c. &c.

(In the margin is 1,700)

Enclosure 2 in No. 4.

Government House, Fredericton, N.B.
June 19, 1851.

His Excellency the Lieut.-Governor has perused your letter with reference to emigration with great interest, and with every desire to aid in promoting the objects suggested by you.

It appears to his Excellency that an especial demand exists in this colony for female servants of good character and industrious habits. It is probable that girls from fourteen to sixteen years of age might, as you suggest, readily find places. It may be doubtful whether those under fourteen would be easily disposed of, or would be taken into families on advantageous terms.

In order to commence an emigration of this kind with success, it would be essential in the first place to ascertain whether a definite number of persons at St. John and Fredericton, as well as in the country, would be ready to receive into their families female children of that description. It would also be necessary to organize at St. John a "ladies' committee," who would undertake to receive and attend to the girls thus brought out, until arrangements were made for forwarding them to their destinations.

His Excellency would be glad to receive from you any suggestions as to the possibility of thus carrying out the proposed scheme. If a sufficient number of persons would engage to take on certain definite terms one or more female children, an experiment on a moderate scale might be made for sending out, under proper guarantees for their fitness, and under proper control, a number sufficient to meet the first demand. The success of such an experiment would certainly lead to its renewal and the interest taken in emigration is such at this moment, that his Excellency believes good to all parties on a large scale might be the result. On the other land, the unfavourable issue of such a trail would inevitably embarrass any future attempt of the kind.

It would be essential to settle before hand what would be fair terms to be agreed upon by those receiving children of this description, and on what principles they were to be selected, and distributed to persons agreeing to take them.

I am authorized to say that Lady Head would be quite prepared to assist in organizing any committee at Fredericton in connexion[sic] with such an object, and would lend her best aid to promote the success of such arrangements.

With regard to boys, his Excellency doubts whether it would be equally possible to make arrangements for their reception and permanent employment; but of this you are a better judge than he can be.

A copy of your letter and of this answer will be forwarded to Earl Grey by the next mail, for the information of the Commissioners for Emigration, and of others to whom his Lordship may see fit to communicate them.

I have, &c.
(Signed) R.T. Pennefather.

M.H. Perley, Esq.,
&c. &c.

(No. 39.) No. 5

Copy of a Despatch from Lieut.-Governor Sir E. Head to Earl Grey.
Government House, Fredericton, N.B.
June 20, 1851.
(Received July 8, 1851)
My Lord,

I have the honour to enclose copies of three letters from Mr. Perley, reporting the arrival of the emigrant vessels "Queen Pomare," "Perseverance," "Lord Fitzgerald and Vesci," and "Charles," at St. John, from Ireland, and mentioning the proceedings taken in the cases of the "Perseverance" and "Charles."

I also transmit the usual returns for these ships.

I have, &c.
(Signed) Edmund Head.

The Right Hon. Earl Grey,
&c. &c. &c.

(In the margin are the dates June 17, 1851; June 18, 1851; and June 19, 1851.)

Enclosure 1 in No. 5.

Government Emigration Office, St. John, June 17, 1851.

I have to report the arrival of the ship "Queen Pomare" from Liverpool, for which vessel, although not under the "Passengers' Act," I enclose a ship return.

On the arrival of this vessel at the quarantine station, it was found that five passengers and one of the crew were very ill with ship fever.

The whole of the passengers and the sick sailor were immediately landed on Partridge Island, where two of the passengers (a woman, aged 70, and a man, aged 24,) died a few hours after landing, the disease having advanced too far to admit of anything being effected for their relief. The rest, I am happy to say, have improved rapidly under Dr. Harding's skill and good management, and are now nearly convalescent.

The passengers, in this case, appear to have contracted the fever at the low lodging-houses in Liverpool frequented by emigrants, and the vessel not coming under the "Passengers' Act," they were not inspected before sailing. The disease appeared five days after the vessel put to sea.

I have, &c.
(Signed) M.H. Perley,
H.M. Emigration Officer.

The Hon. J.R. Partelow,
Provincial Secretary.

Enclosure 2 in No. 5.

Government Emigration Office, St. John,, June 18, 1851.

I have to report the arrival of the barque "Perseverance" from Cork, with 303 passengers, and enclose a ship return.

On inquiry as to water, I found that the supply on the voyage had been ample, and of good quality. The oatmeal was excellent, the rice and the tea good, but the bread was below the standard of navy bread; the flour was musty, and the sugar of the most inferior description.

The passengers stated, that when Lieutenant Friend, the emigration officer at Queenstown, came on board to inspect the provisions, the samples exhibited to him were all of good quality, but after the had been at sea a short time those of worse quality were served out to them. All the flour issued was musty. The bread was said to be baked by Gregory O'Neill, the passage broker who shipped these emigrants at Cork, and it was worse than the ship bread furnished by the master to the crew of the vessel, and that was admitted to be inferior to navy bread.

Of the passengers by the "Perseverance," one hundred and sixty had contract tickets which bound the ship to take them to Boston, viâ St. John. The ship came into port on the 11th instant, and on the 12th was brought to the wharf, and began to discharge cargo and ballast. On the 13th the passengers became clamorous to be forwarded to Boston, and I gave the master notice to proceed with them without delay. He thereupon gave me the letter, copy of which is annexed, engaging to send the passengers next morning by steamer.

The next morning, the 14th, he failed to do so, and alleged as an excuse that he had been forbidden by Mr. Lewis Burns, the agent here for Gregory O'Neill, the broker, who had written him a letter, copy of which is annexed.

I then took out a summons for the master, requiring him to show cause why he did not proceed with the passengers to Boston. He was not served with the summons, but a legal gentleman appeared at the police office, read the letter from Mr. Burns, and said that Mr. Burns would forward the passengers by steamer on the following Tuesday. With this they were obliged to be content; and meantime I furnished them with clean straw, saw that the ship was properly cleaned, and that a sufficiency of provisions was issued to them.

On Tuesday, the 17th, they were not forwarded, as promised. In the evening of that day, the steamer "Creole" was brought alongside the ship, and they were told to embark. They declined doing so until they had assurance that they would be landed free of expense at Boston (as the "Creole" only proceeds to Portland,) and were paid for the time they were unnecessarily detained.

The master then gave me a written undertaking that they should be placed in Boston free to expense or charge, and paid to each passenger five shillings currency, detention money. This morning they all left in the "Creole," quite satisfied. I gave them a letter to Captain Grignon, Her Britannic Majesty's Consul at Portland, requesting him to aid them, if necessary, and advise me if any difficulty occurred.

I am bound, in justice to Captain Morris, of the "Perseverance," to say that his conduct throughout this troublesome business was most satisfactory to me, and also to the passengers, to whom he was very kind on the voyage. All of the difficulties have arisen from the acts of Mr. O'Neill himself, or of Mr. Lewis Burns, his agent here.

I have, &c.
(Signed) M.H. Perley,
H.M. Emigration Officer.

The Hon. J.R. Partelow,
Provincial Secretary.

Enclosure 3 in No. 5.

Government Emigration Office, St. John, June 19, 1851.

I have to report the arrival of the "Lord Fitzgerald and Vesci" from Galway, and "Charles" from Youghal, with passengers; a ship return is enclosed for each.

I have commenced a prosecution against the master of the "Charles," for the excess of passengers, the result of which will be reported hereafter. This vessel had a very small supply of water left on her arrival yesterday, and if she had been longer at sea the consequences might have been serious.

I have, &c.
(Signed) M.H. Perley.
H.M. Emigration Officer.

The Hon. J.R. Partelow,
Provincial Secretary.

(No. 40) No. 6.

Copy of a Despatch from Lieut.-Governor Sir E. Head to Earl Grey.
Government House, Fredericton, N.B.
June 30, 1851.
(Received July 21, 1851.)
My Lord,

In my despatch of June 20, No. 39., I informed your Lordship that proceedings had been taken against the master of the emigrant ship "Charles," for violation of the Passengers' Act.

I have now the honour to enclose copies of papers received from Mr. Perley, containing the details of the action, and the result of the trial. (In the margin beside this is 21 June 1851.)

I have, &c.
(Signed) Edmund Head.

The Right Hon. Earl Grey,
&c. &c. &c.

Enclosure 1 in No. 6.

Government Emigration Office, St. John,
June 21, 1851.

With reference to my letter of the 19th instant, reporting the arrival of the "Charles" from Youghal, with an excess of passengers, I have now to state that the master of that vessel was summoned to appear before the police magistrate on my complaint for having on board such excess.

At the hearing yesterday, the master pleaded guilty of having on board five passengers more than the legal number, the rest of the excess being made up of his crew nine in all. He stated in mitigation, that the officer of customs at Youghal cleared out the "Charles" with the persons on board, as the proper number the vessel was entitled to carry. The master had not sailed in that capacity before, and had no suspicion until his arrival here that he had violated the law. There was no complaint against him on the part of the passengers, who were satisfied with his conduct.

Under these circumstances, I did not press for the extreme penalty, and the magistrates inflicted the lesser penalty of 2l. sterling per head for each of the five passengers in excess, amounting in all to 10l. sterling, with the costs of the prosecution.

The "Charles" had deck space for ninety passengers, but was restricted by her tonnage to eighty-five persons in all. The customs officer at Youghal appears to have overlooked the tonnage check altogether, and hence the difficulty.

It appears that when the "Charles" arrived there was a supply of water on board equal to about eight days consumption, but much had been used by the passengers in washing after the vessel made the land, which accounted for the small quantity on arrival.

I have, however, to object to the bad quality of the water casks in this vessel, several of which leaked out entirely. I fear they had not been carefully examined at Youghal before being filled and stowed.

I enclose, as customary, a certified copy of the proceedings and conviction in this case. The fine will be remitted by the police magistrate to the Receiver General.

I have, &c.
(Signed) M.H. Perley,
H.M. Emigration Officer.

The Hon. J.R. Partelow,
Provincial Secretary.

(In the margin reads: The penalty is not to exceed 5l. sterling and not less than 2l. sterling for each passenger in excess. See 10th section Passengers' Act. Deck space 1080 feet, equal to 90 passengers. Tonnage, 170 tons, equal to 85 persons, including master and crew.)

Enclosure 2 in No. 6.

Province of New Brunswick.
City and County
of Saint John - to wit

Information and complaint made this nineteenth day of June in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, before Benjamin L. Peters, police magistrate, one of Her Majesty's justices of the peace in and for the said city and county, by Moses H. Perley, Esq., Government emigration agent at the port of Saint John in the province of New Brunswick, against John Kines, master of the ship or vessel called the "Charles," for a breach and violation of an Act of Imperial Parliament known as the "Passengers' Act, 1849," in having on board such ship or vessel, at and after the time of clearance from Youghal in Ireland, and during the voyage to this port, fourteen persons more than is permitted by the said Act of Parliament, whereby the said John Kines hath incurred the payment of a penalty not exceeding five pounds nor less than two pounds sterling for each person constituting such excess.

(Signed) Benjamin L. Peters,
Justice of the Peace.

Whereupon I, the said Benjamin L. Peters, did issue my summons to the said John Kines, requiring him to appear on Friday the twentieth day of June instant, at two o'clock in the afternoon, at the police office in the city of Saint John, before two of Her Majesty's justices of the peace in and for said city and county, to answer such complaint, and show cause, if any he has, why the penalty awarded by the said Act should not be imposed upon him.

(Signed) Benjamin L. Peters,
Justice of the Peace.
Friday, June 20, 1851.

The said John Kines having been served with summons, and being now present in hearing before Benjamin L. Peters and Henry Chubb, Esquires, two of Her Majesty's justices of the peace in and for the city and county of Saint John, and the said Moses H. Perley, Esq., Government emigration agent, being also present, the charge made by him as above set forth having been stated to the said John Kines, he saith that he did come to sea with greater number of passengers than is allowed by the Act of Parliament; that he was not at the time aware of the circumstance; that the faulty rests with the custom-house officer at Youghal, and not with him, defendant; and that he was not aware that he was violating any provisions of the Act of Parliament, and that he did not proceed to sea with a greater number than the Act allowed wilfully or in violation of the Act, but in ignorance, and trusting to the custom house-officer at Youghal; and he the said defendant pleads guilty to the charge of having five passengers above the number allowed by the Act of Parliament, and makes the above statement in explanation of his having so brought five passengers above the number allowed.

Mr. Perley hearing this statement, says, that under the circumstances as they have appeared before him, he will withdraw the complaint respecting any number of passengers over the five mentioned by the defendant.

Whereupon, considering the statement made by the said defendant, and under the circumstances as shown before us, we do convict the said John Kines of the said charge made against him, for having on board the ship or vessel called the "Charles," whereof he is master, at and after the time of clearance from Youghal in Ireland, and during the voyage to this port, five persons more than is permitted by the Act of Parliament known as the "Passengers' Act, 1849;" and we do adjudge that the said John, for his said offence do forfeit and pay the sum of two pounds sterling money for each of the said five passengers constituting such excess, and the further sum of thirteen shillings costs in this behalf.

Given under our hands and seals, at the city of St. John, the twentieth day of June in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one.

(Signed) Benjn L. Peters,
Justice of the Peace, Police Magistrate,
Henry Chubb,
Justice of the Peace.

Enclosure 3 in No. 6.

City and County
of Saint John ( to wit.

I do hereby certify that the foregoing is a true copy of proceedings had before Benjamin L. Peters and Henry Chubb, Esquires, two of Her Majesty's justices of the peace in and for the said city and county of Saint John, on a charge made by Moses H. Perley, Esquire, Government emigration agent at this port, against John Kines, master of the ship or vessel called the "Charles," for having on board such vessel, at and after clearance from Yougal and during voyage to this port, a greater number of passengers than is allowed by the "Passengers' Act, 1849."

Given under my hand, at the city of Saint John, the 20th day of June 1851.

(Signed) Benjamin L. Peters,
Justice of the Peace, Police Magistrate.

(No. 45.) No. 7.

Copy of a Despatch from Lieut.-Governor Sir E. Head to Earl Grey.
Government House, Fredericton, New Brunswick,
July 11, 1851.
(Received July 30, 1851.)
My Lord,

I have the honour to enclose copies of letters from Mr. Perley, reporting the arrival of the vessels "Gipsey," "Princess Royal," "Ocean," and "Lesmahagow" at St. John with passengers.

I also transmit the usual returns for the three first-named ships. The emigrants brought by the "Lesmahagow" were picked up at sea from the "Taff," which vessel was in a sinking state.

I have, &c.
(Signed) Edmund Head

The Right Hon. Earl Grey,
&c. &c. &c.

Enclosure 1 in No. 7.

Government Emigration Office, St. John,
July 7, 851.

I have to report the arrival of the ship "Gipsey" from Liverpool, with 326 passengers, and brig "Princess Royal" from Cork, with 98 passengers. A ship return for each is enclosed.

The passengers by these two vessels were all Irish. Of those by the "Gipsey" no less than fourteen were reported by Dr. Harding as likely to become a public charge, for whom bonds were required. There were two aged women in the "Princes Royal" of the ages of seventy-five and fifty-five years respectively, without friends, for whom bonds were also required.

I have &c.,
(Signed) M.H. Perley,
H.M. Emigration Officer.

The Hon. J.R. Partelow,
Provincial Secretary.

Enclosure 2 in No. 7.

Government Emigration Office, St. John,
July 9, 1851.

I have to report the arrival of the brigantine "Ocean" from Beerhaven, with eighty-three passengers; and enclose a ship return.

There were four persons in this vessel likely to become a public charge, for whom bonds have been required.

I have, &c.
(Signed) M.H. Perley.
H.M. Emigration Officer.

The Hon. J.R. Partelow,
Provincial Secretary

Enclosure 3 in No. 7.

Government Emigration Office, St. John,
June 8, 1851.

I have to report the arrival at this port of the ship "Lesmahagow," 741 tons, Gimber master, from Greenock, having on board forty-seven emigrants, picked up at sea.

They were taken from the ship "Taff," 516 tons, Henry Gillespie master, which sailed from Cardiff on the 28th May last, bound to New York. The "Taff" was loaded with railroad iron, and having sprung a leak was fallen in with by the "Lesmahagow" on the 14th June, in lat. 46 58' N., long. 35 31' W., in a sinking state.

The captain and crew of the "Taff" were also taken off, and the greater part of the effects of the passengers, with a tolerable supply of provisions, but only a small supply of water,

owing to a storm springing up.

The "Lesmahagow" is a fine ship, and the emigrants had ample accommodation on board her. They were most kindly treated by Captain Gimber, and they arrived here in excellent health, without suffering the least privation.

Of these emigrants thirty-four were English and Welsh; the remaining thirteen were Irish. They all left here this morning in the steamer for Portland, furnished with railroad tickets for New York, and a week's provisions, the whole expense being defrayed by Captain Gillespie, late of the "Taff," whose conduct throughout has been most kind, considerate, and generous.

The emigrants have published a card, expressing their gratitude and thanks to Captain Gillespie, and also to Captain Gimber, of the "Lesmahagow," which those gentlemen well deserve; and it might, perhaps, be proper to notice their kindness and humanity in a public manner.

I have, &c.
(Signed) M.H. Perley,
H.M. Emigration Officer.

The Hon. J.R. Partelow,
Provincial Secretary.

(No. 47.) No. 8.

Copy of a Despatch from Lieut.-Governor Sir E. Head to Earl Grey,
Government House, Fredericton, N.B.,
July 25, 1851.
(Received, August 18, 1851.)
My Lord, (Answered, September 22, 1851. No. 289, Page 58.)

I have the honour to enclose a copy of a letter addressed to my private secretary by Mr. Perley, the emigration officer at St. John, covering a report from Thomas Jones, Esq., assistant emigration officer for the port of St. Andrew's. (In the margin are the dates July 24, 1851. And July 14, 1851.)

These papers relate to the case of the "Susan," referred to in your Lordship's despatch of May 19, No. 258. I would particularly direct attention to the cases of Murphy, Rogers, and Connell.

There is no doubt very serious hardship will be inflicted on the town of St. Andrew's by the maintenance of these parties.

I have, &c.
(Signed) Edmund Head.

The Right Hon. Earl Grey,
&c. &c. &c.

Enclosure in No. 8

Government Emigration Office, St. John, N.B.
July 24, 1851.

With reference to your letter of 11th June, enclosing copies of a despatch, and annexed report, on the subject of the emigrants by the ship "Susan" at St. Andrew's, I have now the honour to enclose a communication from Captain Jones, assistant emigration officer at St. Andrew's, in reply thereto.

I beg that the misapprehension in the communication of the Poor Law Commissioners, Dublin, arising from their having confused information from Mr. Buchanan of Quebec with other information from myself, supposing us to be one person, may be corrected.

I have, &c.
(Signed) M.H. Perley,
H.M. Emigration Officer for New Brunswick.

R.T. Pennefather, Esq.
&c. &c.

Sub-Enclosure to Enclosure in No. 8.

Emigration Office, St. Andrew's,
July 14, 1851.

I have received your communication of the 21st June, accompanied by a copy of Earl Grey's despatch to his Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor, respecting emigration, and the emigrants that arrived here last September in the ship "Susan," and a copy of the Poor Law Commissioners in Ireland's report on them, with a list attached to it of the emigrants whom the Guardians of the Cork Union "proposed to assist to emigrate," signed by Mr. Can, the master of the workhouse.

You will observe that that list does not exactly correspond with the one subscribed by Mr. Friend, the Government emigration officer at Cork, and handed me by the master of the "Susan."

In Mr. Can's list are mentioned the following persons, who did not arrive here, viz.:--

Hackett, Mathew aged 21
Canol, Mary " 20
Desmond, Jeremiah " 34
Dudley, Christopher " 19
Dudley, James " 17
Dudley, Margaret " 14
Yearley, Jeremiah " 25
Buckley, Michael " 18

And in Mr. Friend's list are the following persons, who did arrive here, viz.:--

Geary, John apparently aged 19
Geary, Ellen aged 17
Sullivan, Hannah " 22
Preston, George " 25
Leary, Hannah " 52
Shea, John " 9
Ryan, Margaret " 42
M'Carthy, Daniel " 18

I notice this discrepancy, because two persons in it are older than the two that were to have been sent, and because the Poor Law Commissioners informed Earl Grey, on the authority of the guardians of the union, that the four following emigrants were the only ones whose ages exceeded forty years, viz.:--

Coughley, Patrick said to be 41
Driscol, Patrick said to be 59
Leary, Thomas said to be 50
Leary, Johanna said to be 50

Now, judging from appearance, from the opinions of others, and in some cases from their own admissions, I would set down the ages of the following to be as opposite their respective names:

Coughlen, Patrick 41
Driscol, Patrick 62
Leary, Thomas 76
Leary, Johanna 61
Leary, Hannah 52
Ryan, Margaret 42
Duggan, Edward 41
Murphy, Mary 50
Conder, Hugh 41
Downy, John 45
Doody, Honora 42
Magner, Eliza 50
Smith, Johanna 41
Noonan, Mary 50

Thus making fourteen, instead of four, to be over forty years of age.

In making this statement, although I am satisfied of its truth, I do not mean to impute any intention on the part of the guardians of the Cork Union to mislead the Poor Law Commissioners. They obtained their information, probably, from the master of the workhouse, who got his from the entries in its registry, compiled with the usual accuracy of such records.

The Poor Law Commissioners seem to consider the circumstance of old Thomas and Johanna Leary being attended by a family of six persons, as a set off to their age and infirmity. You may judge what advantage to them and to us that accompaniment was, when I acquaint you that one of the six was a child, no connexion of the family, eleven years of age, another, thirteen years, (John and Patrick Leary,) though stated in the Commissioner's report to be respectively twelve and sixteen; another was a widow, Margaret Leary, alias Margaret Barrett, consumptive, who died after a long and expensive illness, of consumption, in the hospital; another was Ellen Leary, no connexion of the family, though passed off as a daughter, and who left them as soon as she landed; and the remaining two were unable to take care of themselves.

I regret that I did not, in my report of December last, name those parties whom I characterised as aged and infirm or diseased. I alluded to many in the foregoing list; for instance:--

To Patrick Driscol, who is aged and infirm, and very drunken.
To Thomas Leary, who was aged, infirm, and consumptive. He is now dead.
To Johanna Leary his wife. She is aged, infirm, and diseased with prolapsus uteri of long standing.
To Hannah Leary, who is old and infirm, and very drunken and worthless.
To Mary Murphy, who is old, infirm, and the most incorrigible termagant, perhaps, in the Cork Union. She was, I understand, always subject to sore eyes. She is now stone blind, and helpless.
To Eliza Magner. She was old, infirm, and diseased. She was very drunken and very worthless. She is now dead.
To Margaret Barrett. She was consumptive, and is since dead.
To Partrick Coughalan. He was insane. He is now dead.
To Daniel M'Carthy, who had a tendency to consumption. He since died of consumption.
To Hanora Duggan, who has her spine injured, and is incapable of hard work.
To Jane Duffy. Long standing menorrhagia.
To Ellen Daly, who is subject to fits.
To Timothy Shea who has lost one, and is subject to sore eyes. He is a widower, and was accompanied by a helpless child, whom he robbed and abandoned.

John Burkley, George Preston, and Patrick M'Govan, by the testimony of the rest, had all weak and sore eyes before they came here. When you add to this list, the many women sent out who were shameless and profligate, and the men dissolute and worthless, you must admit that a worse set of emigrants was never discharged on our shores. I am very desirous to see emigrants select our province, for I am convinced few countries present a better opening for a poor man, and that any number almost of that class, provided they were healthy, moral, and industrious, and arrived at a proper season, might find certain employment, and, with common luck and perseverance, a comfortable living; but these colonists must be reared in a better school than an Irish workhouse. Did it not look like impeaching the discrimination of those gentlemen who inspected these emigrants before they sailed, I should say the eulogium they passed on their appearance, as reported by Mr. Can, was extorted by the new clothes, and the gay shawls and smart caps, presented to the men and women by the guardians of the union, previous to their embarkation, if worn on that occasion.

I feel grateful to the Poor Law Commissioners for having done me the justice to suppose, that if I had held in hand "to meet the general necessities of the whole body, instead of "distributing it among them individually," any part of the 70l. sterling furnished by the guardians of the Cork Union for the use of these emigrants by the ship "Susan," that I had done so "with the best possible intentions." However, I beg to assure you that the Commissioners were quite wrong in conjecturing that any part was so held back. Each individual received, as soon as it could be paid to him, the sum set opposite to his name, according to the list sent me by you, and in conformity with your own instructions. I entirely agree with the Commissioners in the impolicy of an opposite course, and never thought of adopting it.

Most of these emigrants have now dispersed. Some have gone to the United States, some to St. John's and a few young men have returned to ireland. A few still linger about the town, and will unavoidably, in the winter, become chargeable to the parish. In the temporary hospital provided for the sick are now only Edward Duggan, who was injured on the railroad, and his wife, Honora, with the injured spine; Cornelius Desmond, the man who had his hand cut off in a saw-mill, and his wife, (formerly Ellen Daly), who is subject to fits; Johanna Leary, the old woman with prolapsus, &c.; Jane Duffy, with menorrhagia, is just out for a short time; Mary Murphy, more turbulent than ever, and now stone blind; and the two blind boys, Owen Rogers and William Connell.

I wish particularly to direct your attention to these three blind persons, Murphy, Rogers, and Connell, with the hope that you will represent the circumstances to his Excellency the Lieutenent Governor, in such a manner as to induce him to order them to be shipped to whence they came. I should like also to see included in the same order Mrs. Leary and several others. You are aware that the 23d September next is the anniversary of their arrival, after which period they will become no longer chargeable on the emigration fund. Is it just that this parish should be saddled with their maintenance for life? At the expiration of the year, these emigrants by the "Susan" will have cost the province nearly 350l, and, to balance the account, it has not gained in reality one good settler. I perceive, by Mr. Merivale's report, that the Poor Law Commissioners have under their consideration the policy of sending out again such emigrants; and I hope you will urge on his Excellency the expediency of suing such representations to Earl Grey as will cause them to desist from this mode of forcing emigration.

The guardians of the Cork Union have now tried an experiment, which, as far as we are concerned, has most signally failed, and I, and all the inhabitants of this town, sincerely deprecate the renewal of the imposition. They have shifted the burden from off their own shoulders on to ours.

I append a communication from Dr. Bayard, the medical man who has charge of the emigrant hospital, which, you will perceive, confirms many of the statements I have made.

I have, &c.
(Signed) Thomas Jones,
Assistant Emigration Officer.

Moses H. Perley, Esq.,
H.M. Emigration Officer,
St. John's.

Sub-Enclosure 2 to Enclosure in No. 8.

Saint Andrew's, July 14, 1851.
Dear Sir,

In reply to your communication respecting the emigrants who landed here from the ship "Susan" in September last, I have to state, that Thomas Leary and Margaret Barret (his daughter) both died of pulmonary consumption, which disease, from their own statements, on examination, and the symptoms which presented themselves when they were first placed under my charge immediately after their arrival, I should say had been existing for a long time. Indeed, Barret told the nurse that she had been sick in the hospital for some weeks before leaving Ireland.

Johanna Leary has been suffering from prolapsus of the uterus, which she says is of several years standing. She has been quite incapable of working since her arrival. Jane Duffy has been under treatment for menorrhagia (excessive menstruation) from October until within a few days. During that period she went out several times to service, but was obliged to return to the hospital in a few days, quite unfit for work.

In conclusion, I have merely to add, that I fully agree with the estimate you have made of the ages of the fourteen persons mentioned in your list.

Believe me,
Yours, &c.
(Signed) Edwin Bayard,
Physician in charge of the Emigrant Hospital,
St. Andrew's.

Thomas Jones, Esq.,
Assistant Emigration Officer,
St. Andrew's, N.B.

(No. 49.) No. 9

Copy of a Despatch from Lieut.-Governor Sir E. Head to Earl Grey.
Government House, Fredericton, New Brunswick,
July 31, 1851.
(Received August 18, 1851.)
My Lord,

I have the honour to enclose copies of two letters from Mr. Perley, reporting the arrival of the emigrant vessels "Blanche" and "Virginia" at St. John. (In the margin is July 23, 1851 and July 26, 1851)

I also transmit the usual returns for these ships.

I have, &c.
(Signed) Edmund Head

The Right Hon. Earl Grey,
&c. &c. &c.

Enclosure in No. 9.

Government Emigration Office, St. John,
July 23, 1851.

I have to report the arrival of the schooner "Blanche" from Donegal, with fifty-two passengers, and enclose a ship return.

The passengers by this vessel were very clean tidy people, and the vessel was in very good order on her arrival, after fifty-two days' passage.

The "Blanche" was built at Hopewell in this province, in the year 1834, and is now owned in Sligo. As regards sailing properties, she is a mere tub, and altogether is a very unfit vessel to carry passengers across the Atlantic.

Some of the finest ships belonging to this port, after being fully iron-kneed, and classed A 1 at Lloyd's for six years, have been refused permission to bring passengers on their first return trip from Great Britain, while a miserable little tub like the "Blanche," now in her eighteenth year, receives that permission. (In margin is Ship "Pilgrim," Ship "Onward.")

It would be desirable to bring this matter under the notice of the Emigration Commissioners, with the view of securing uniformity and impartiality in the decisions as to the proper vessels for carrying passengers.

I have, &c.
(Signed) M.H. Perley,
H.M. Emigration Officer

The Hon. J.R. Partelow,
Provincial Secretary.

Enclosure 2 in No. 9.

Government Emigration Office, St. John,
July 26, 1851.

I have to report the arrival of the ship "Virginia" from Liverpool, with 292 passengers, and enclose the usual ship return.

Among the passengers by this vessel were four families from the parish of Bishop Itchington in Warwickshire, sent out by the guardians of the Southam Union, under the sanction of the Poor Law Commissioners. There were twenty-three souls in all, clean, healthy, able-bodied people. I paid over to them their landing money, one pound sterling for each adult, and made arrangements for sending them to Sussex Vale, where I have reason to believe they all will find permanent employment at good wages.

All the rest of the passengers by the "Virginia," except two, were Irish, some of them of the better class.

There were four women for whom bonds were required.

I have &c.,
(Signed) M.H. Perley,
H.M. Emigration Officer.

The Hon. J.R. Partelow,
Provincial Secretary.

(No. 1.) No. 10

Copy of a despatch from Lieut.-Governor Sir E. Head to Earl Grey.
Government House, Fredericton, New Brunswick,
January 3, 1852.
(Received January 19, 1852)
My Lord,

I have the honour to enclose the annual abstract of immigration into this province, with the emigration officer's report for 1851.

I also transmit a copy of a paper on the climate of this province, which Mr. Perley has forwarded to the Commissioners of Colonial Lands and Emigration. With regard to this document, the annexed table of temperatures, taken by my private secretary during the year 1850, tends to show that Mr. Perley has somewhat under-rated the rigour of the winter in the interior of the province.

I have, &c.
(Signed) Edmund Head.

The Right Hon. Earl Grey,
&c. &c. &c.

Enclosure in No. 10.

To his Excellency Sir Edmund Head, Bart., Lieut.-Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Province of New Brunswick, &c., &c., &c.

May it please your Excellency,

Herewith I have the honour to submit the annual abstract of immigration to this province for the year 1851.

The whole number of immigrants landed during the year was 3,470, being an increase on the year 1850 of 1,963 souls.

It is gratifying to state that the number of deaths on the voyage and in quarantine was only seven, being one fifth of one per cent. on the numbers embarked.

There was but on prosecution under the "Passengers' Act" during the past season, which was for an excess of passengers, and has been fully reported. The Act appears to work admirably. As it becomes better understood by all parties, few disputes or difficulties arise.

(In the margin is "Master of the brigantine "Charles" from Youghal fined 10 sterling and costs.")

The emigrants of the past season were nearly all from Ireland, either direct or by the way of Liverpool. Many proceeded at once to the United States, to join friends there who has paid their passage money to America. A large proportion of those who remained obtained immediate employment from the water company, the timber merchants, and others, at three shillings and fourpence sterling per day. In consequence of this high rate of wages in the town, very few of the labourers went into the country, where the want of labour is beginning to be felt.

The crops of all descriptions having been good and abundant the past season, there is a growing demand for farm labourers, at fair wages. Female labour is exceedingly scarce inthe rural districts, and some hundreds of women, accustomed to farm and dairy work, could readily obtain employment at five pounds sterling per annum. The inquiries at this office for female farm servants are incessant.

Young persons are also much sought after by respectable farmers; and I have already stated to your Excellency, that from two hundred to four hundred boys and girls, of the age of fourteen years and upwards, from the workhouses of England, might be placed comfortably in this province, under proper regulations and fitting arrangements.

The system of selling Crown lands in this province is such as effectually to deter persons recently arrived in the country from becoming purchasers. Lord Stanley, when Secretary of State for the Colonies, recommended to the Legislature of Newfoundland to insert a clause in their Land Bill, "declaring, that if lands should be once, or oftener than once, exposed to auction, and not sold, the Government might be afterwards at liberty to dispose of them, without competition, at the last upset price at which they had been offered. An enactment of this nature, " says Lord Stanley, "has been found useful in other colonies, in order to prevent the delay of which parties complain, when they have in all cases to wait for periodical and public sales."

If a diagram of one or more settlements had been lodged at this office during the past season, with authority to sell any vacant lot which had been once offered at auction and not then sold, I feel assured that a very considerable quantity of land could have been disposed of to persons who would soon have become actual settlers. The staple business of the province having been good during the current year, and the crops abundant, the rates of wages generally were high. The labouring classes saved much money, which they would willingly have invested in land, in order to make for themselves a permanent home.

If arrangements could be made for carrying out this mode of selling vacant lands during another season, it might be tried at first at St. John, St. Andrew's, Miramichi, Fredericton, and Woodstock. The purchaser should in all cases, deposit the purchase money in a bank or branch bank, to the credit of the Receiver General, the deposit receipt to be forwarded by the local agent to the Crown Land Department, when the grant would issue. This mode would obviate the necessity of taking security from the agents employed, and greatly simplify the accounts.

In the event of railways being commenced in this province, there would immediately spring up a demand for vacant land, and the necessity for a convenient and speedy mode of selling such land to persons desirous of commencing the process of clearing and improvement without delay would be quickly felt. But under any circumstances the acquisition of land by by persons able and willing to purchase for immediate settlement should be rendered as easy and simple as possible.

All which is respectfully submitted.
(Signed M.H. Perley,
H.M. Emigration Officer.
Government Emigration Office, St. John, N.B.
December 31, 1851.

Sub-Enclosure 2 to Enclosure in No. 10.

The Climate of New Brunswick

Although the winters of New Brunswick are somewhat severe (less so, however, than Lower Canada), yet the climate is exceedingly healthy.

On the shores of the Bay of Fundy there is much fog during the summer season, but this extends a short distance only into he interior. The city of St. John is frequently wrapped in a dense sea-fog, while the days are bright and cloudless at the distance of a few miles only.

There are no fogs on that coast of New Brunswick which is within the Gulf of St. Lawrence; the air there is particularly dry and bracing.

In the interior of the province the air is much warmer in summer than on the coast, and there is a greater degree of cold in winter.

The ranges of the temperature may be thus stated:--

At St. John, in the Bay of Fundy, from 15 below to 88 above zero.

At Richibucto, on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, from 16 below to 90 above zero.

At Fredericton, in the interior, from 20 below to 95 above zero.

Course of the Seasons.

The winter is fairly established at Christmas. In January, as in the other North American colonies, there is the usual thaw. In February is the deepest snow, which seldom exceeds four feet in the average on the northern portion of the province, and three feet in the southern portion. In March the sun acquires much power, and the snows begin to melt. In the cleared country the snow disappears in April, and spring ploughing commences. Seed time continues according tot eh season, from the last week in April until the end of May. In June the apple trees are in full blossom. In July wild strawberries, of fine flavour, are ripe and in abundance; haying then begins. In August early potatoes are brought to market, as also raspberries and other wild fruits. In September oats, wheat, and other grains are ready for the sickle; these are generally secured before October. The autumn is long, and the weather then is delicious; this is decidedly the most pleasant portion of the year. There are usually heavy rains in November, but when not wet the weather is fine and pleasant. The rivers generally close during the latter part of this month, and in December winter again sets in.

Notes of the Weather in 1850.

From Obervations[sic] made at an altitude of 132 feet above high-water mark in the city of Saint John, N.B. Latitude 45 16' N. Longitude 66 4' W.

Temperatures taken in winter at 8 A.M., 1 P.M., and sunset; in summer, at 6 A.M., 1 P.M., and sunset.

Months Highest




Average Snow

in inches


in inches

January 44 -6 22.28 24.50 3
February 45 3 28.54 6.75 5
March 49 1 28 .28 1
April 70 20 39.63 7 1.37
May 78 38 49.87 - 3.33
June 76 43 59.05 - 2.17
July 82 52 64.40 - 4.50
August 86 54 67 - 2.75
September 84 48 65.15 - 5
October 52 31 52.40 - 3.80
November 57 20 39.21 3 2
December 42 -3 21.26 48 -


117.25 33.92

Summary of the Weather in the years 1848 and 1849.

Years Highest











in inches


in inches

1848 87 -14 178 116 72 89 48
1849 88 -15 200 124 41 46 37.66

In England, nine inches of snow, "melted," average one inch of water; in New Brunswick, seventeen inches "melted," average one inch of water. The snow is therefore twice as light, or dry, as in England. There are not more than four storms in one year, at which over one foot of snow falls at one time; and snow storms rarely last more than two days.

(Signed) M.H. Perley.
H.M. Emigration Officer for New Brunswick.
Government Emigration Office Saint John, N. B.,
December 9, 1851.

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