Immigrants to Canada

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Emigrants Handbook of 1864 (CIHM #64018)

For The Information
Intending Emigrants
By Authority
Printed by J. Blackburn.


The following pages, addressed to the notice of intending emigrants to Canada, have been compiled from the latest authentic official sources and other data, and will, it is thought afford information upon every important point of enquiry. It is unnecessary that I should allude, at any length, to the advantages which Canada offers as a field for emigration. Cheapness and easiness of access (being within twelve days' sail by steamer, having a bi-weekly communication in summer, and weekly, viâ Portland, in winter), a loyal and peaceable population, healthy climate, and millions of acres of fertile lands, abounding in mineral wealth also, and only waiting occupation,-may be enumerated among some of her prominent attractions.

The emblem of Canada is the Beaver; her motto-Industry, Intelligence, and Integrity. These qualifications are required by all who desire to make honorable progress in life, and when possessed and put into practice, cannot fail to command success. Many of our wealthy inhabitants landed in the country without a friend to receive them , and with little beyond their own industrious habits to recommend them, and many to whom the future looks unpromising annually resort to our shores. But in Canada, success is to be achieved by the poorest through honest labor. Willingness to work will ensure comfort and independence to every prudent, sober man. No promises of extravagant wages are held out, but a fair day's pay for a fair day's work is open to every man, in a country where the necessaries of life are cheap and abundant.

Amongst emigrants, cases of disappointment must occasionally occur, but in nine cases out of ten, they may be traced to the individuals themselves. Energy and physical ability for labor are two essential elements for success in a new country; their absence must involve failure, and exaggerated expectations will invariably lead to disappointment.

Frequent applications having been made to me on the subject of assistance towards emigration, it is proper that I should state that the Canadian Government have no fund applicable to the granting of free passages. The cost of the ocean passage is so reasonable compared with that to the Australian Colonies, that it cannot form an insuperable difficulty in the way of emigration to Canada; and to all who reach our shores the Government will afford every care and protection while proceeding to their destinations.

Any further information which may be desired upon any point not referred to in these pages, it will afford me pleasure, at all times, to furnish, on being addressed as under.

A.C. Buchanan,
Chief Emigrant Agent
Government Immigration office,
Quebec, March, 1864.


Geographical Position, and Extent

The Province of Canada embraces about 350,000 square miles of territory, independently of its north-western possessions, not yet open for settlement. It extends from the Gulf of St. Lawrence on the East, to (according to some authorities) the Rocky Mountains on the West, and may be said to be one-third larger than France, nearly three times the size of Great Britain and Ireland, and more than three times the size of Prussia. The inhabited or settled portion of Canada covers already an area of between 40 to 50,000 square miles, being twice as large as Denmark, three times as large as Switzerland, a third greater than Scotland, and more than a third the size of Prussia; and so rapid is the progress of colonization, that before many years have passed away her settled parts will most likely be equal in area to Great Britain or Prussia.

Canada was once divided into two distinct Provinces, known as Upper and Lower Canada, but in 1840 these Provinces were united, although for some purposes the old territorial divisions still exits. Upper Canada is that part of the new United Provinces which lies to the south and west of the River Ottawa, and Lower Canada comprises the country to the north and east of that river.

This extensive Province is bounded on the north by the British possessions at present in the occupation or guardianship of the Hudson's Bay Company; on the south and east by the States of the American Union and the British Province of New Brunswick. The western boundary of Canada west of Lake Winnipeg, is yet undefined. The River St. Lawrence, and lakes Ontario, Erie, St. Clair, Huron, and Superior, with their connecting rivers, from a wonderful natural boundary between Canada and the s States of the Union, and a means of communication of surprising extent and unsurpassed excellence.

Constitution and Form of Government

Canada, a Colony of Great Britain, rejoices in all the unfettered, religious, social, and political freedom of an independent nation. The Governor is appointed by the British Crown, and is its representative in the Province; he nominates an Executive Council, who are his advisers. There are two Legislative bodies, called the Legislative Council and the Legislative Assembly, the members of which are elected by the people. All public offices and seats in the Legislature are (much in the same way as in England) open to any candidate possessing the confidence of the people, holding a certain limited amount of property, and being at the same time a British subject. Every man paying an annual household rental of 30 dollars (6 sterling) in the cities and towns, and 20 dollars (4) in the rural districts, is entitled to vote. Aliens, or foreigners, can buy, hold, and sell lands, and when naturalised, which may take place after a three years' residence, they can, upon taking the oath of allegiance, enjoy the full rights and privileges of natural-born citizens. The British Government maintain a certain number of troops in Canada and the neighbouring Provinces for protection against foreign invasion, and the militia and volunteer system are in a forward state of organisation.


The most erroneous opinions have prevailed abroad respecting the climate of Canada. The so-called rigour of Canadian winters is often advanced as a serious objection to the country by many who have not the courage to encounter them, who prefer sleet and fog to brilliant skies and bracing cold, and who have yet to learn the value and extent of the blessing conferred upon Canada by her world-renowned "snows."

From observations taken for one year, it appeared that the mean range of the thermometer was as follows:--

In Eastern Canada,


In Western Canada,


For June, July, and August 77.57 77.37
For the winter months... 11.25 22.49

In regard to weather, a year's observations showed 309 fine days, and 56 of rain or snow in Eastern Canada, and 276 find days, with 89 of rain or snow in Western Canada.

Canada East

The climate of Canada East, like that of the Lower Provinces, is unquestionably the most healthy in North America.

Disease is unknown among the usual population, except that caused by the inequality of diet or imprudent exposure to atmospheric changes. The extreme dryness of the air is shown by the roofs of the houses (which are covered with tin) remaining so long bright, and by a charge of powder remaining for weeks uncaked in a gun.

It is supposed that the long winter is unfavourable to agricultural operations; and though the period during which ploughing may be carried on is shorter than in more favorable climates, yet there are many compensating advantages in the excellence of the snow roads, and the great facilities afforded thereby in conveying produce to market, in drawing manure, and hauling out wood from the forest.

If the real excellence of a climate depends upon the earth yielding in perfection and abundance the necessaries of life, or those which constitute the principal articles of food for man and the domestic animals, then Canada East may compare favorably with any part of the world. The steadiness and uniformity of the summer heat causes all grains and fruits to mature well and with certainty.

In Lower Canada melons ripen freely in the open air, and apples attain a peculiar degree of excellence, those of the Island of Montreal being especially famed. The Island of Orleans, below Quebec, is equally celebrated for its plums.

Canada West

In a country of such vast extent as Upper Canada, the climate varies materially. Throughout the agricultural or settled part of it along the St. Lawrence and the lakes, and which extends from 50 to 100 miles in depth, the winter may be said to commence early in December. Snow usually falls in sufficient quantities in the eastern section of this range to afford good sleighing about the middle of that month, and to continue with trifling exceptions until the middle of March. In the western section, although we have occasionally heavy falls of snow, we are subject to frequent thaws, and sleighing cannot be depended upon except in the interior, at a distance from the lakes. On the cleared lands the snow generally disappears about the middle of March, and the sowing of seed for the spring crops begins early in April, and ends about the 10th of may. Ripe wild strawberries in abundance may be had by the last of June.

From the head of Lake Ontario, round by the Niagara frontier, and all along the Canadian shores of Lake Erie, the grape and peach grow with luxuriance, and ripen to perfection in the open air, without artificial aid.

Table of Mean Monthly and Annual Temperature at Toronto.
Canada West, from 1840 to 1859, taken from the Records of the Provincial Magnetic Observatory, by Professor Kingston:--

Jan Feb March April May June
1840 to


23.72 22.83 30.07 41.00 51.38 61.27
July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
1840 to


67.06 66.12 57.98 45.27 36.65 25.97
Mean Annual


Mean Monthly and Annual Fall of Rain at Toronto, from 1840 to 1859

Jan Feb March April May June
1840 to


1.408" 1.043" 1.553" 2.492" 3.305" 3.198"
July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
1840 to


3.490" 2.927" 4.099" 2.257" 3.109" 1.606"
Mean Annual


Dr. Lillie, in his Essay on Canada, remarks, that "Professor Hind holds the climate of Canada West to be superior to those portions of the United States lying north of the 41st parallel of latitude, in mildness-in adaptation to the growth of cereals-in the uniformity of the distribution of rain over the agricultural months-in the humidity of the atmosphere-in comparative in indemnity from spring frosts and summer draughts-in a very favorable distribution of clear and cloudy days for the purpose of agriculture-and in the distribution of rain over many days-as, also, in its salubrity. In the following points he regards it as differing favorably from that of Great Britain and Ireland, viz., in high summer means of temperature-in its comparative dryness-and in the serenity of the sky."

Over the whole of Canada the melon and tomato acquire large dimensions, and ripen fully in the open air, the seeds being planted in the soil towards the latter end of April, and the fruit gathered in September. Pumpkins and squashes attain gigantic dimensions; they have exceeded 300 pounds in weight in the neighborhood of Toronto. Indian corn, hops, and tobacco, are common crops and yield fair returns. Hemp and flax are indigenous plants, and can be cultivated to any extent in many parts of the Province . With a proper expenditure of capital, England could become quite independent of Russia, or any other country, for her supply of these valuable articles.

In a paper on "climate," recently read before the Literary and Historical Society at Quebec, by A. Harvey, Esq., F.S.S.,, the following interesting remarks occur:--

"The differences of mean annual temperature between the various parts of Canada are comparatively small, there being but 27' of difference between the mean temperature of Quebec and Montreal, while the temperature of Quebec and Toronto are about the same. We, however, find considerable differences if we look to the mean temperatures of summer and winter. We have at

Mean Summer


Mean Winter


Quebec 69 1' 12 8'
Montreal 79 8' 17 2'
Penetanguishene 68 0' 21 7'
Toronto 64 8' 24 5'
Windsor 67 6' 26 8'

"The winter temperatures are undoubtedly severer than those of the best countries of Europe. Looking at the summer temperatures, however, we find the summer of Quebec equal to that of Toulouse, in the south of France; the summer of Montreal equal to that of Lisbon or Cadiz; the summer of Toronto about the same as that of Paris. The chief posts in the Hudson's Bay Territory have as warm a summer as any portion of the British Isles. Fortunate is it, indeed, for this continent that, as we must have so low a mean temperature, we get it so unevenly. It is well for us that the cold is concentrated into the winter, so as to allow us a genial summer for vegetation, which, as well as animal life, depends to a great extent upon the summer heat. In Christiania, Stockholm, the Faroe Islands, places where the annual means are similar to those of our chief cities, they can hardly grow cereals enough to feed a scanty population. The grasses, if rich in quality, are miserably poor in quantity, while the luscious fruits, which contribute so much to our enjoyment, are imported luxuries. There the forests, where not composed of coniferae, are poor and stunted. There the cultivation of indian corn is impossible. The grape is an exotic. In Canada how different the facts!

"Fortunate is it, too, that we have a winter in which the energies of the human system can be braced up, and its vital forces recruited. The average duration of life here is longer than in those countries which have no such season. The temperature of our hottest days is as great as that of the warmest days in New Orleans or any part of Mexico, and the mean temperature of a July in Quebec within 10 of a July in Vera Cruz. There, however, the summer heats are almost unendurable from their duration, and are the fruitful parents of yellow and other frightful fevers, from which we are totally exempt; while even the fever and ague, so terrible to settlers in Illinois, Indiana, and other States of the American Union, cannot reach us in Lower Canada, being never met with north of Montreal."

According to Professor Guy, the proportion of deaths to the population is:--

Austria 1 in 40 Belgium 1 in 43
Denmark 1 in 45 England 1 in 46
France 1 in 42 Norway 1 in 41
Portugal 1 in 40 Prussia 1 in 39
Russia 1 in 44 Spain 1 in 40
Switzerland 1 in 40 Turkey 1 in 50
United States 1 in 74 Upper Canada 1 in 102
Lower Canada 1 in 92 All Canada 1 in 98

Thus proving the salubrity of the Province beyond all question.


The laws of England were introduced into Upper Canada in 1791, and still prevail, subject to the various alterations made from time to time by the local Parliament. The laws of France, as they existed at the conquest of Canada by Britain, prevail in Lower Canada, subject also to the alterations effected by the local Parliament. The criminal and commercial laws of England prevail here, as in Upper Canada.

Municipal Institutions

The municipal system of Canada is admirably adapted to the exigencies of a young and vigorous country. In order to comprehend it, it is necessary to state that Upper Canada is divided into counties, 42 in number; the counties are divided into townships, the latter being about 10 miles square. The inhabitants of a township elect annually five Councillors; the Councillors elect out of this number a presiding officer, who is designated the Township Reeve; the Reeves and the Deputy Reeves of the different townships form the County Council; this Council elect their presiding officer, who is styled the Warden. In each county there is a judge, a sheriff, one or more coroners, a clerk of the peace, a clerk of the county court, a registrar, and justices of the peace, which officers are appointed by the Governor in Council. All Township Reeves, Wardens, Mayors and Aldermen are ex officio, justices of the peace.

The County Council are charged with the construction and repairs of gaols and court-houses, roads and bridges, houses of correction and grammar schools, under the provisions of the school law; to grant moneys by loan to public works tending to the improvement of the country, and to levy taxes for the redemption of debts incurred.

Rivers, Canals, Railways, and Postal Accommodation

The natural advantages conferred upon Canada by the St. Lawrence river are incalculable. Immediate and direct water communication with the sea for 2,000 miles of inland coast, without reference to the vast affluents striking deep into the heart of the country, appears in itself sufficient to mark out Canada for a distinguished future. Three hundred miles from the outlet of the St. Lawrence, we pass the mouth of the Saguenay, navigable for the largest vessels 70 miles from its outlet. Four hundred and ten miles' sailing from the ocean and we reach Quebec, the great seaport of Canada; 590 miles brings us to Montreal, near where the Ottawa, or Grand River of the North, mingles its dark but transparent waters with those of the St. Lawrence, after draining a valley of 80,000 square miles in area. One hundred and sixty-eight miles above Montreal, after passing the St. Lawrence canals, we are in lake Ontario, 756 miles from the sea, and 234 feet above it. Traversing its expanse and passing Kingston, Cobourg, Toronto and Hamilton, we reach the outlet of the Welland canal, through which we rise 330 feet to the waters of Lake Erie, 1,041 miles from the sea, and 564 feet above its level. Traversing Lake Erie, and through the Detroit river, Lake St. Clair, and the St. Clair river, we arrive at Lake Huron, 1,355 miles from our starting point, and 573 feet above the ocean. We now reach St. Mary's river, and through a short canal enter Lake Superior, a fresh water sea as large as Ireland, enabling us to attain a distance of 2,000 miles by water from the mouth of the St. Lawrence.

The late Government survey of the great lakes gives the following exact measurement. Lake Superior: greatest length, 855 miles; greatest breadth, 160 miles; mean depth, 988 feet; height above the sea, 627 feet; area 31,000 square miles. Lake Michigan: greatest length, 360 miles; greatest breadth, 108 miles; mean depth, 900 feet; height above the sea, 587 feet; area, 20,000 square miles. Lake Huron: greatest length, 200 feet miles; greatest breadth, 160; mean depth, 300 feet; height above the sea, 574 feet; area, 20,000 square miles. Lake Erie: greatest length, 250 miles; greatest breadth, 80 miles; mean depth, 200 feet; height above the sea, 555 feet; area, 6,000 square miles. Total length of five lakes, 1,345 miles; total area, 84,000 square miles.

There are now 1,876 miles of railway in operation in Canada, independent of the Grand Trunk extension to Portland. The Victoria Bridge has brought the Grand Trunk into unbroken operation, and it is now able to transport passengers and goods from the Atlantic to the Mississippi, with a saving of several days over all other routes.

The following lines are now in operation:-The Grand Trunk from Rivière du Loup to Sarnia; the Great Western and branches, from Toronto to Detroit; the Northern from Toronto to Collingwood; the Buffalo and Lake Huron, from Fort Erie to Goderich; the London and Port Stanley; the Erie and Ontario; the Cobourg and Peterborough; the Prescott and Ottawa; the Montreal and Champlain; the Grenville and Carillon; the St. Lawrence and Industry; the Port Hope and Lindsay, with branches; the Brockville and Ottawa, to Perth and Almonte; the Stanstead, Shefford and Chambly, and the Welland.

Everywhere postal communication is complete. The most distant hamlet has its post office, and the number of offices in Canada is now about 1,974. The electric telegraph passes through every town and almost every village in the Province, and the number of miles in operation at this time is 4,846. The approach or arrival of a steamer or sailing vessel at Quebec is known very nearly at the same moment in every town of the Lower and Upper portions of the Province. All improvements in the arts or sciences affecting the commercial or industrial interests of her people are quickly introduced into Canada, and with numerous elements of adaptation and progress within her reach, she eagerly avails herself of the practice and enterprise of other countries.

Educational Institutions In Canada

Upper and Lower Canada enjoy separate School laws adapted to the religious elements prevailing in either. Each township in Upper Canada is divided into several school sections, according to the requirements of its inhabitants. The Common Schools are supported by Government, and partly by local, self-imposed taxation and occasionally by the payment of a small monthly fee for each scholar. In long-settled rural districts each school section is now distinguished by a handsome brick school-house, furnished with maps, authorized school books, and elementary philosophical apparatus. The salaries of teachers vary from 130 stg. to 40 stg. in country parts, and from 280 stg. to 75 stg. in cities and towns. All common school teachers must pass an examination before a County Board of Education, or receive a license from the Provincial Normal School, empowering them to teach, before they can claim the Government allowance.

The Provincial Normal School of Upper Canada is a highly effective and useful institution for the training of teachers, and annually sends forth from 100 to 150 young men and women, who, having been uniformly instructed in the art of conducting a school and communicating knowledge, gradually are establishing in Upper Canada a system of common school education of great promise.

The Free School system is gaining ground in many parts of Canada; the principle it involves implies the support of common schools, open to all, by a general tax, and the non-exaction of fees. Any school section may adopt it by the vote of the majority of its inhabitants. Separate schools for Roman Catholics are sanctioned under certain regulations. Besides a richly endowed Provincial University, supplied with a complete staff of highly competent professors and lecturers, there are several other Universities and Colleges in Upper Canada in connection with different religious denominations. The standard of education adopted in some of the Canadian Universities assimilates as closely as possible to that established in the time-honored institutions of Great Britain and Ireland, and the ranks of the professorial staffs are generally supplied from the same unfailing sources. All the expenses of a full University course in Toronto need not exceed 60 sterling per annum, board and tuition included. To the Provincial University, and to the University of Trinity College, in connection with the Church of England, scholarships are attached, which vary in value from 18 stg. to 40 stg. per annum. These are awarded (at annual examinations) to successful candidates competing for them.

The educational statistics in Upper Canada may be thus summed up:--

4 Universities,
4 Roman Catholic Colleges,
3 Theological Colleges, exclusively,
8 Collegiate Seminaries,
1 Royal Grammar School,
3 Normal and Model Schools,
91 County Grammar Schools,
3 Industrial Schools
4103 Elementary Schools,
382 Miscellaneous Schools,
4597 Educational Institutions in all;

having 5219 professors or teachers, and 359,155 pupils, with an estimated annual income of $1,799,400.

In Lower Canada a system of education in most respects similar to that which has just been described exists, and is rapidly obtaining favour among the people. The Superior Schools there are of a very high order, and many of the Seminaries attached to religious houses are well endowed and amply provided with efficient professors and teachers.

Including the Laval University and McGill College, the educational institutions in Lower Canada are thus classed in the Report of the Superintendent of Education for the year 1861:

Schools Teachers Pupils
Superior Schools 10 74 652
Secondary Schools 206 1,038 29,183
Normal Schools 3 30 200
Special Schools 4 16 135
Primary Schools 3,278 3,259 158,465
3,501 4,417 188,635

The Superior Schools comprise Universities and Schools of Law and Medicine.
Secondary Schools are Classical Colleges and Academies.
Special Schools are Deaf and Dumb Institutes, Schools of Agriculture, Arts and Manufactures.
Primary Schools comprise Model and Elementary Schools.

Woods and Forests

The principal description of timber found in the forests of Canada are:-White, yellow and red pine; white and black spruce; tamarac; white, rim and black ash; grey, red, soft and rock elm; bird's eye, white and red oak; bird's eye, curly and soft maple; black and grey walnut; smooth and rough bark hickory; ironwood; red wild cherry; basswood; beech; red and white cedar; hemlock; fir; poplar; chesnut; buttonwood, and whitewood.

For furniture and ornamental purposes, the luxuriant beauties of our crotched, wavy and mottled black walnut are well known, both here and in Europe; also the beauties of our bird's eye and curly maples, as well as our curly birch, crotched white oak, and red wild cherry. The superior qualities of our white, red and yellow pine are fully acknowledged in the markets of Europe. Our oaks, elms and tamarac rank high for ship-building and general purposes; in fact all our woods are susceptible of being utilized in the arts and manufactures.

The most important and extensive timber territories of Canada are:--

1st. The country drained by the Ottawa, containing an area of 75,000 square miles. The white pine, red pine and ash are chiefly obtained from this region.

2nd. The St. Maurice and its tributaries, draining an area of 22,000 square miles. Contains large quantities of white, yellow and red pine, spruce, birch, maple and elm.

3rd. The Saguenay country, area 21,000 square miles. Rich in white and red pine, spruce, birch and tamarac

4th. The North shore of Lake Huron. White and red pine, spruce, cedar, birch, and maple.

5th. The extensive Gaspé Peninsula. White and red pine, spruce, tamarac and birch.

6th. The Peninsula of Canada West contains oak, elm and walnut.

7th. The Ontario territory, north of Lake Ontario, still contains a large amount of white pine, elm, maple, &c.

Not less than twenty-five thousand persons are directly engaged in lumbering operations. Government works, technically called slides, have been constructed on the sides of the falls of the great rivers down which the lumber is floated from the interior. Farmers have followed the lumberers far beyond the frontiers of the settlements in order to supply them with oats, potatoes, peas, and hay.

The industry to which the manufacture of the different products of the forests gives rise is very extensive. In 1851 there were 1,567 saw mills in Upper Canada, and 1,065 in Lower Canada. The number of feet manufactured during the year amounted to 391,051,820 and 381,560,950 respectively. Since 1851 the quantity manufactured has no doubt increased enormously, but no data are at present published from which satisfactory conclusions can be drawn, although some conception of the magnitude of the trade may be formed from the fact that planks and boards to the value of $1,507,546 were exported to the United States in 1861, being not far from half the total production of Upper Canada ten years previously; although the trade had suffered to a remarkable extent, in consequence of the calamitous civil war which is now wasting the energies of our brethren across the international boundary.

The produce of the forest of most importance next to lumber has always been pot and pearl ashes.

Canada exports annually about 30.000,000 cubic feet of timber in the rough state, and about 400,000,000 feet, board measure, of sawed lumber.

Purchasers of Crown lands can, by the terms of sale, upon fulfilling certain conditions of occupation, cut and sell from their lots whatever timber they may think proper, by taking out a license, which can be had on application to the Crown Land Agent at a cost of 4. The value of the timber thus cut is applied in payment of the purchase money due to the Crown.

Minerals And Mining

The principal economic minerals of Canada are stated by Sir W.E. Logan to be:--

Metals And Their Ores

Magnetic iron ore; specular iron ore; limonite (bog ore); titaniferous iron; sulphuret of zinc (blende); sulphuret of lead (galena); copper, native; sulphuret of; variegated; copper pyrites; argentiferous do., and containing gold; nickel; antimony; silver, with native copper and sulphuret of silver; gold.

Of these the iron, copper, and lead ores are worked to some extent in both sections of the Province. Antimony is mined in Lower Canada. The copper deposits of the Eastern Townships are ascertained to be of very large extent, and mines have been successfully opened, at very fair wages, to a fast-increasing mining population. The deposits of gold ascertained to exist, also, in the eastern part of the Province have repaid very fully the labor applied with judgment to the working of them. A large number of labourers will probably engage themselves in this branch of mining during the approaching season, and with every prospect of success.

Non-Metallic Minerals

Uranium; chromium; cobalt; manganese; iron pyrites; graphite; dolomite; carbonate of magnesia; sulphate of barytes; iron ochres; stextile; lithographic stone; agates; jasper; felspar; avanturine; hyacinthe; coramdum; amethyst; jet; quartzose; sandstone; retinite and basalt; gypsum; shell marl; phosphate of lime; millstones; grindstones; whetstones; tripoli.

Some of these minerals are worked on a moderate scale, and there is no room for doubt that, with larger general experience of their value, many more of them will be found to ensure fair returns to the employment of capital and skilled labor. Sulphur and sulphuric acid, superphosphate of lime, plumbago, &c., are productions which must attract very early attention.

Building Materials

Granites; sandstone; calcareous sandstone; limestones; hydraulic limestones; roofing slates; flagging stones; clays; moulding sand; fuller's earth.

Marbles-white, black; red, brown, yellow and black, grey and variegated green.


Peat; petroleum; asphaltum.

Mining In Canada

Regulations for the sale of mineral lands, approved by His Excellency the Governor General in Council.

1. That the tracts shall comprise not more than four hundred acres.

2. That the dimensions of the tracts in unsurveyed territory be forty chains in depth, and bounded by lines running due North and South, and East and West, or as near to these dimensions as the configuration of the locality will admit.

3. The applicant for a tract in unsurveyed territory must furnish a plan and description thereof by a Provincial Land Surveyor.

4. The price shall be one dollar an acre, paable on the sale.

5. That a tax or duty of one dollar per ton be charged on all ores extracted from the tract, payable on removal from the mine. This condition applies to all mining lands sold since the first day of April, 1861, and is in lieu of the Royalty of two and a half per cent. chargeable on the ores from these lands.

6. That in surveyed townships lots presenting indications of minerals be sold on the above conditions, but at no less than one dollar per acre in any township, and at the same price as the other lands in the township when it is more than one dollar per acre.

7. That not more than one tract of four hundred acres be sold to one person.

8. The above regulations do not apply to mines of Gold and Silver.

9. All previous regulations inconsistent with the above are cancelled.

Gold Mining Regulations

Department of Crown Lands,
Crown Domain Branch,
Quebec, 22nd April, 1864.

The following Gold Mining Regulations have been approved of by His Excellency the Governor General in Council, viz:

1. Gold mining shall be held to mean any mode of obtaining or collecting gold from the natural deposits or rocks of the country.

2. No person shall be allowed to work any gold mine without a license.

3. The rights of the Crown in respect to gold shall be transferred by temporary licenses.

4. No royalty shall be exacted.

5. Gold mining licenses shall be issued to the proprietor of any land, such license to convey the right to work for the gold on the lot; to be issued for lots of one hundred acres, or arpents, or less, as defined by the existing surveys, and to remain in force for thee months, subject to renewal, by new application and licence (except in cases of change in ownership of land), on the same terms and at the same rate; conditional on future orders of His Excellency the Governor General in Council, or legislative enactments as respects gold mines.

6. Applicants for a tract in unsurveyed territory must furnish a plan of survey and description of the land required, by a Provincial land surveyor, such tract not to comprise more than four hundred acres, and to be of the dimensions or proportion of forty chains by one hundred chains, bounded by lines running due north and south and east and west, or as near to these proportions as the configuration of the locality will admit. A separate license to be taken for each 100 acres.

7. The number of persons authorized to be employed in mining for gold shall be not less than five per license, including all employed either directly or indirectly on the work, and the licenses shall be issued on the payment of one dollar for each person so employed, subject to a further payment of one dollar for each additional person employed.

8. Monthly returns, under oath, must be made to the Inspector of mines for the division, of the persons employed, the amount of gold extracted per day and any further information which His Excellency the Governor General in Council may direct.

9. Any increase in the number of persons to be employed under the license must be notified to the inspector of mines for the division within ten days of such employment, accompanied by payment of the additional fee.

10. In cases where a lot borders on a stream, not included therein, the license will go to the middle thereof; where a stream crosses a lot, the same will be comprised in the license, subject in all cases to the public rights in navigable or floatable waters.

11. Parties holding licenses shall have the right of transfer, provided such transfer be notified in writing to the inspector of mines for the division; and on payment of a fee of one dollar, shuch transfer and payment shall be endorsed on the license.

12. Purchasers or their assignees of Crown lands sold and only partially paid for will be required to pay up in full before obtaining a license, and applicants for license on vacant Crown lands will be required to purchase and pay up in full before receiving a license.

13. Application for license must be made in writing to the inspector of mines for the division, detailing title, proof of which must be furnished to such inspector.

14. Error or misrepresentation by applicant as to his right to or ownership of the land, or failure to comply with all or any the present regulations or future orders of His Excellency the Governor General in Council or legislative enactments having reference to gold mines, to which the license will be subject, shall entail immediate forfeiture of the license.

These regulations shall not apply to the Seigniory of Rigaud-Vaudreuil.

It has also pleased His Excellency the Governor General to appoint the two following gentlemen to be Gold-Mining Inspectors for the divisions on the south shore of the St. Lawrence, below mentioned, viz.: Charles Lefebvre de Bellefeuille, Esquire, for the division to be called the Chaudière Division, to comprise the territory lying to the north-east of the line dividing the counties of Nicolet, Arthabaska, Wolfe and Comptoon, from the counties of Lotbinière, Megantic, and Beauce (save the townships of Spaulding, Ditchfield, Clinton and Woburn, to be attached to the St. Francis Division, hereinafter mentioned); whose office will be at St. François de la Beauce; and Daniel W. Mack, Esquire, for the division to be called the St. Francis Division, to comprise the territory lying to the south-west of the same line, with the four townships above mentioned; whose office will be at Stanstead until further orders-to whom all mining applications (as per printed form in their possession, and which they will supply to intending applicants) are to be made.

The unsold Crown lands in the following townships are, for the present, hereby set apart for sale for gold mining purposes, under the above regulations, and will be disposed of to the first applicants, at two dollars per acre, payable cash in one sum, without settlement duties, viz.:

C?audiere Division

Jersey, marlow, Risborough, Linière, Watford, Cranbourne, Frampton, south-west parts of Buckland and Standon, and Augmentation and Metgermette, in the agency of Andrew Ross, Esquire: office at Frampton.

Ware and langevin, in the agency of F. Rouleau, Esquire: office at St. Claire.

Daaquam and Mailloux, in the agency of S.V. Larue, Esquire: office at St. Charles, Rivière Boyer.

Bellechasse, Roux and north-east part of Buckland, in the agency of F. Lamontague, Esquire: office at St. Gervais.

Thetford, Broughton, Leeds, Inverness, Ireland, Halifax, Somerset and Nelson, in the agency of John Hume, Esquire: office at Leeds.

Price, Colraine, Adstock, Tring, Lambton, Forsyth, Aylmer, Gayhurst and Shenley, in the agency of Louis Labrecque, Esquire: office at Lambton.

St. Francis Division

Winslow, Whitton, Hampden, Ditton, Woburn, Chesham, Marston, Clinton, Spaulding and Ditchfield, in the agency of William Farwell, Esq: office at Robinson.

Stanstead, Barnston, Barford, Hereford and Gore, Auckland, Clifton, Compton, Hatley, Magog (former Hatley), Orford, Ascott, Eaton, Newport, Wesbury, Stoke, Brompton, Melbourne, Shipton, Cleveland, Windsor, Dundswell and Weedon, in the agency of John Felton, Esq.: office at Sherbrooke.

Potton, Sutton, Dunham, Stanbridge, Farnham, Granby, Shefford, Stukely, Ely, Roxton, Milton, bolton, Brome and Magog (Formerly Bolton), in the agency of J.A. Kemp, Esquire: office at Waterloo.

Acton, Durham, Kingsey, Simpson, Wickham and part of Upton, in the agency of the Hon. William Sheppard: office at Wendover.

Wotton, Ham, South Ham, Wolfestown, Garthby and Stratford, in the agency of J.T. LeBel, Esquire: office at Wotton.

Warwick, Chester, Tingwick and Horton, in the agency of Antoine Gagnon, Esquire: office at St. Christophe d'Arthabaska.

Arthabaska, Bulstrode and Stanfold, for which there is at present no agent; and application to purchase in these townships must be made to this Department.

Applications made for purchase of lots since the sale in certain of the above townships was stayed, to be taken according to priority of date, at the above price, provided the same be renewed to the respective Crown land agents on or before the 20th day of May next; after said date, in case of simultaneous application, lots will be disposed of by the said agents to the highest bidder over the upset price of two dollars per acre. Not more than 400 acres will be sold to any one person. All applications to be addressed to the agents, those for unsurveyed tracts to be accompanied with required plan of survey and description, connecting the land surveyed with some known point of a previous Government survey.

Andrew Russell,

Asst. Com. Of Crown Lands.


The fisheries belonging to the Province are attracting much attention, and will prove a productive source of wealth. They are inexhaustible, and are now subject to a regular system of licensing, and every endeavour is being made to preserve them, and encourage their increase.

Fisheries, L.C.

Lower Canada possesses, in the River and Gulf of St. Lawrence, an extent of coast of 1000 miles, where the cod, herring, mackerel, salmon, and other fisheries are carried on successfully.

Whale fishing is also carried on by vessels fitted out from the port of Gaspé. Average season value of whale oil has been about 27,000 dollars.

The cod fishing is carried on along the whole shore of Canada. The herring fishing principally at the Magdalen Islands, in the Bay of Chaleurs, and on the coast of Labrador. The mackerel fishing at the magdalen islands, along the coast of Gaspé, and in the lower part of the River St. Lawrence.

There are above 70 salmon fishery rivers in Lower Canada, which the Government are now fostering, with a view to enhance the commerce in this valuable fish.

The merchantable fish products derived from the lakes and rivers of Upper Canada consist chiefly of white fish, salmon, salmon-trout, herring, lake-trout, speckled-trout, sturgeon, pickerel, bass, mascalonge, &c. Inferior kinds also abound in the smaller lakes, tributaries and streams.

The extensive area, great depth, clear cold waters, abundant feeding banks, shoals and spawning grounds, of the principal Canadian lakes, render the fish found therein numerous, of good quality, and large size.

Tracts of arable land, bordering on the great lakes, are still at the disposal of the Government for sale and settlement.

The Class of Persons Who Should Emigrate

Persons with capital seeking investment. Families with stated incomes will find in Canada a suitable home, good society, and every facility for educating and starting their children in life. These combined advantages being found with much less difficulty than amidst the crowded population of the Mother Country.

Practical farmers, agricultural labourers, male and female servants, boys and girls over fifteen years of age. Those possessing small capitals may rent or purchase farms with some little improvements, on reasonable terms.

Clerks, shopmen, or persons having no particular trade or calling and unaccustomed to manual labor, should on no account be persuaded to emigrate, for to this class the country offers no encouragement at present.

Average Wages

Farm labour per m'th, from $8 to $12, with board & lodging.
Female servants " " $2 to $5, "
Boys, over 13 years. " " $2 to $8, "
Girls " " $1 to $3, "
Mechanics per day " 1 to $2.50 without board

Tradesmen found with board and lodging get little more than half the above rates of wages.

Farm labourers on their first arrival would perhaps not obtain the above rates on farms, but after being a few months in the country, when they learn to chop, they will command full rates.

Demand For Labour

There is a large and increasing demand for farm labourers and female servants. To this latter class especially Canada offers great inducements, and every hard-working respectable girl is sure to do well. Boys and girls over 15, carpenters, masons, bricklayers, blacksmiths, and shoemakers are also wanted.

General Directions

Time to emigrate and best mode of reaching Canada.

It is important to arrive in Canada early in the spring. By leaving in April or may, the emigrant will arrive at a time when there is the greatest demand for his labor. The highest daily wages are given in harvest; but his object should be to secure permanent employment at reasonable wages, thereby securing a home for the winter. It must also be borne in mind, that until he becomes acquainted with the country his services are of comparatively small value to the farmer, and therefore he should be careful not to fall into the common error or refusing reasonable wages when first offered on his arrival.

Unless the emigrant comes out to join friends, there is nothing to be gained by his arriving earlier than the beginning of May; he would not be likely to obtain work before then.

If the means of the emigrant will permit it, steamers should be preferred to sailing vessels. First-class steamers leave Liverpool, Londonderry, and Glasgow weekly, from April to November, direct or[sic] Quebec.

Emigrants having no fixed destination are advised not to take their tickets beyond Quebec.

If any serious cause of complaint arise during the passage, the emigrant should go at once to the captain of the vessel and make known his grievance. This will ensure him immediate redress; or, if not, it will strengthen his case very much should he find it necessary to take legal proceedings on his arrival. The law holds the master of the vessel responsible for any neglect on the part of the stewards, or any of the officers or crew.

The law provides that emigrants may remain on board 48 hours after the vessel's arrival (except in cases where the vessel has a mail contract, or unless within that period she shall proceed in further prosecution of her voyage), and that they shall be landed free of expense at proper hours.

Luggage-Should be in compact, handy packages, distinctly marked with the owner's name and destination. The enormous quantities of useless luggage brought out by emigrants entail heavy expenses and trouble, and in many cases the cost of cartage, porterage, and extra freight exceeds its value. The personal effect of emigrants are not liable to duty.

Clothing.-Woollen clothing and all descriptions of wearing apparel, flannels, blankets, bedding and house linen, &c., are much cheaper in England than in Canada, and wherever it is practicable, the emigrant should lay in a good stock of clothing before leaving home.

Tools.-Agricultural laborers need not bring out implements of husbandry, as these can be easily procured in the country. Artisans are recommended to take such tools as they may possess. But both classes must bear in mind that there is no difficulty in procuring any ordinary tools in the principal towns, on advantageous terms, and that it is more desirable to have the xxxxxx purchasing what they want after reaching their destination than to be encumbered with a large quantity of luggage during the journey into the interior.

Money.-The best mode of taking money is in sovereigns, or by letter of credit on some established bank. A sovereign is worth 24s. 4d. currency, or 4 dollars 85 cents. The English shilling, 1s. 2d., or 24 cents.

Capital,-Emigrants possessing capital, say from 200 to 500, are advised to purchase or rent a farm with some little improvement upon it, instead of going into the bush at once. Parties desirous of investing may obtain from seven to eight per cent for their money on mortgage with perfect security.

A word of advice is offered to the emigrant coming to Canada with a small capital. He would act wisely, if, instead of buying land-as is often done-before becoming acquainted with its character and the kind of labor required in a new country-a proceeding invariably leading to the incurrence of debt, payment of interst[sic], and entailing various other embarrassing expenses-he were to place his money in the Savings' Bank, take lodgings for his family in some neighborhood affording a good prospect of employment, and work at wages for a year or so, thus gaining the knowledge and experience necessary to realise independence. Such a course is not deemed degrading in Canada, and is sure to result in ultimate good. Let it be borne in mind that all persons coming to Canada, whether they be possessed of 100 or 1,000, must fail, unless they come determined to labor themselves; and it may be asserted without fear of contradiction, that the family who pursues this plan will, at the end of a few years, be far in advance of him no matter what his capital may be, who has not taken to the axe and the hoe. A determination to work, carried out with spirit and consistency, will bring with it a degree of prosperity cheering to contemplate, and not to be surpassed in any other part of America.

Improved farms may be purchased at from five dollars to fifty dollars per acre, according to situation and extent of improvement; or rented, with or without the option of purchase, at from one dollar to four dollars per acre. The emigrant should not invest all his capital in land, but reserve sufficient to enable him to stock and work it.

On Arrival In Canada

The emigrant should at once apply to the Government emigration officers, whose duty it is to afford him every information and advice. He should avoid listening to the opinions of interested and designing characters, who offer advice unsolicited. Many, especially single females and unprotected persons, have suffered from want of proper caution in this respect.

Government Emigration Agents

Quebec A.C. Buchanan, (Chief Agent). Offices: Old Custom House Buildings and Grand Trunk Station, Point Levi.
Montreal J.H. Daly
Ottawa City W.J. Wills
Kingston James McPherson
Toronto A.B. Hawke, (Chief Agent, U.C.)
Hamilton R.H. Rae

Who will furnish emigrants, on application, with every information relative to lands open for settlement, farms for sale, routes, distances, and expense of conveyance, demand for labor, rates of wages, &c., &c.

Those desirous of obtaining employment will find it to their advantage to accept the first offer, even if the wages should be less than they had been led to expect, as until they become acquainted with the country, their services are of comparatively small value to their employers. Persons seeking situations as clerks, shopmen, &c. (for whom there exists no demand), and mechanics who experience difficulty in obtaining employment in their respective trades, should accept the first offer that presents itself sooner than remain idle.

Emigrants who have settled destinations should remain about the city as short a time as possible after arrival. Farm laborers should proceed at once into the agricultural districts, where they will be certain of meeting with suitable employment; and those with families will also more easily procure the necessaries of life and avoid the hardships and distress which are experienced by a large portion of the poor inhabitants in our large cities during the winter. The chief agent will consider such persons as may loiter about the ports of landing to have no further claim on the protection of Her Majesty's agents, unless they have been detained by sickness or some other sufficient cause.

Protection To Emigrants

The Imperial and provincial Passenger Acts provide, as far as possible, against frauds and imposition, any instance of which should at once be made known to the nearest emigrant agent.

No person without a license shall influence passengers in favor of any particular steamboat, railroad or tavern. Tavern-keepers shall have posted, in some conspicuous place, a list of prices to be charged for board, lodgings, &c., and they will not be allowed to have any lien upon the effects of a passenger for board and lodging beyond five dollars-about one pound sterling.

Emigrants arriving at Quebec, holding through tickets for their inland transport, and desiring to obtain information, may delay their journey for that purpose, as the railway or steamboat company to whom they are addressed will take charge of their luggage until they are ready to proceed.

Crown Lands

Several millions of acres of surveyed lands are always in market, and the prices fixed at which intending settlers can acquire them, upon application to the respective Crown Land Agents. The prices of Crown lands vary from 70 cents, 2s. 10d. sterling cash, to one dollar, or 4s. 1d. Sterling, an acre, on time, according to locality.

Crown lands in Upper Canada are sold for cash at 70 cents, 2s. 10d., an acre, and, on time, one dollar an acre; one-fifth to be paid at the time of sale, and the remaining four-fifths in four equal annual instalments, with interest at six per cent on the purchase money unpaid. On the north shore of Lake Huron, and at Fort William on Lake Superior, lands are sold on time at 20 cents, or 10d. sterling, an acre. All Crown lands in the newly surveyed territory are subject to settlement duties, and no patent in any case (even though the land be paid for in full at the time of purchase) shall issue for any such land to any person who shall not by himself, or the person or persons under whom he claims, have taken possession of such lands within six months from the time of sale, and shall from that time continuously have been a bonâ fide occupant of, and resident on the land for at least two years, and have cleared and rendered fit for cultivation and crop, and had under crop, within four years at farthest from the time of sale of the land, a quantity thereof in proportion of at least ten acres to every one hundred acres, and have erected thereon a habitable house, and of the dimensions at least of sixteen by twenty feet. Timber must not be cut without license, except for agricultural purposes.

Land Regulations

Land adapted for farming purposes can seldom be obtained from land companies, speculators or private individuals, under twenty shillings an acre. The Canadian Government, being desirous or preventing the acquisition of large tracts of land by private companies or private individuals, for the purpose of speculation, have coupled the sale of the Government lands with such conditions as to prevent undue or improper advantage being taken of their liberality in offering farming land at a low rate. Every purchaser must become an actual settler. This simple condition drives out of the field a host of speculators.

In addition to the free grants, Government lands are sold either in blocks, or in single lots of 100 acres, to actual settlers.

Lands in blocks are sold in quantities varying from 40,000 to 60,000 acres, at 50 cents (about 2s. sterling) per acre, cash, in Upper Canada; and in Lower Canada, at from 18 cents and upwards, according to situation; on condition that the purchaser cause the block to be surveyed into lots from 100 to 200 acres each, on a plan and in a manner to be approved by the Government; and that one-third of the block be settled upon within two years and a half from the time of the sale, one-third more within seven years, and the residue within ten years from the time of sale.

This requirement will be dispensed with as to any portion of land which, at the last mentioned period, is found to be unfit for settlement.

The settlers must have resided on their lots for two years continuously, and must have cleared and cultivated ten acres of every one hundred acres occupied by them, before they can get absolute titles.

Absolute titles will be given to the purchaser on payment in full of the price, and on condition of his having resided at least two years on his lot, and cleared and had under cultivation ten acres to every one hundred acres occupied by him.

Directions To Emigrants And Others Wishing To Purchase Crown Lands

Emigrants and others desirous of purchasing Crown lands should make application to the respective local Crown Land Agents, who are required by law to furnish all applicants with correct information as to what lands are open for sale.

The Government Emigration Agents at Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Kingston, and Hamilton, will afford information and advice to emigrants respecting the best means of reaching the localities in which they intend to settle. If the lot has not yet been advertised, and placed at the disposal of the agent, no sale of it can be made until that is done, unless the applicant is in actual occupation, with valuable improvements; in that case he may, at his own expense, procure the services of the agent (if the lot be within the jurisdiction of one) to inspect it or furnish him satisfactory evidence, by affidavits of two credible and disinterested parties, or the report of a sworn surveyor, to enable him to report to the Department the following particulars, viz:

The whole time the lot has been occupied; by whom occupied; the nature and extent of the improvements owned by the applicant, and whether there are any adverse claims, on account of improvements made by any other party, on the same piece or parcel of land.

If the lot is Public land, but not within the jurisdiction of any agent, the application should be made direct to the Department, applicant being careful, in order to avoid delay and prevent unnecessary correspondence, to transmit at the same time the evidence by affidavit or surveyor's report, as above stated.

The same rules should be observed by applicants to purchase Public lands situated in the old settled townships, with these additions: that in cases where the applicant occupies improvements made by his predecessors on the lot, he should show by assignment or other evidence, how he obtained possession of them, and that he is now the bonâ fide owner of the same. The present full value of the land per acre, exclusive of improvements, should also be stated by the agent, the surveyor, or deponents, as the case may be. All papers necessary to substantiate the applicant's claim or right to purchase, if the application is made direct to the Department, should accompany the first application.

All assignments, whether by squatters or purchasers, must be unconditional to be recognized by the Department.

Applications for information relative to the dates of patents and the names of patentees should, invariably, be made to the Provincial or Deputy Provincial Registrar.

Parties writing to the Department should give their post office, the date and number of the last letter (if any) they received from the Department on the subject. They should, if they can, state whether the lots they write about are Crown, Clergy or School lands. Each letter should be confined to one subject; the signature should be distinctly written, and the letter addressed to "The Honorable the Commissioner of Crown Lands."

Every applicant for letters patent for lands, should state his Christian name at length, with his occupation and residence, as these must be stated in the letters patent.

Expense Of Clearing And Public Charges On Land

The cost of clearing wild lands is about from 12 to 14 dollars per acre. The expense is, however, greater in the remote districts, in consequence of the difficulty of procuring laborers; but this work is generally done by contract. The only charge on land is a tax which seldom exceeds 1d. Per acre. It is applied to local improvements alone, in which the person taxed has a direct interest.

Capital Required By Intending Settler

The capital required to enable an emigrant family to settle upon a Free Grant lot, or enter upon the occupation of the wild lands of the Crown, has been variously estimated. It should be sufficient to support his family for the first 18 months, until he can get a return from his land; and although much will depend upon the parties themselves, in no case should it be less than 50 currency or two hundred dollars.

The Farming Interest Of Canada

The official census taken in January, 1861, furnishes reliable data for arriving at the agricultural condition of the country and an official Report from the Bureau of Agriculture, issued in 1863, provides estimates of two years' later date. From these returns it appears that the number of persons in actual occupation of land in Upper Canada, in the year 1860, was not less than 131,983, and in Lower Canada 105,671. The quantity of land held was as follows:

Persons holding in

U. Canada L. Canada
10 acres and under 4,424 6,822
10 acres to 20 2,675 3,186
20 acres to 50 26,630 20,074
50 acres to 100 64,891 44,041
100 acres to 200 28,336 24,739
Above 200 acres 5,027 6,809
Total occupiers 131,983 105,671

It thus appears that there were, three years ago, not fewer than 237,654 persons in Canada who cultivate their own land; and if the army of farm servants, choppers, carpenters, blacksmiths, waggon-makers, harness-makers, &c., directly employed on farm work, be added, it will be seen at once how vast a proportion of the half million of male adults in Canada are directly employed in the cultivation of the soil.

Then as to the capital employed. The estimated cash value of the farms and farming implements was, in January, 1861, as follows:--

In Upper Canada $306,442,662
In Lower Canada $178,870,271
Total value $485,312,933

And this enormous sum does not include the live stock and crops on hand. The last census showed the live stock to have been then as follows:--

U. Canada L. Canada
Milch cows, No of head 451,640 328,370
Oxen and steers 99,605 200,991
Young cattle 464,083 287,611
Horses, of all kinds 377,681 248,515
Sheep 1,170,225 682,829
Pigs 776,001 286,400

At present prices, these cannot be valued at much under $100,000,000; and the amazing rapidity with which the live stock of the country is increasing in number and value can readily be seen by a comparison of the census returns of 1851 and 1861.

But perhaps a more satisfactory idea of the agricultural industry of the Province can be gained from a statement of the annual product of our farms. In the year 1860 the crop was as follows:--

U. Canada. L. Canada Total.
Wheat, bushels 24,620,425 2,654,354 27,274,779
Barley, do 2,821,962 2,281,674 5,103,636
Rye, do 973,181 844,192 1,817,373
Peas, do 9,601,396 2,648,777 12,250,173
Oats, do 21,220,874 17,551,296 38,772,170
Buckwheat, do 1,248,637 1,250,025 2,498,662
Indian Corn, do 2,256,290 334,861 2,591,151
Potatoes, do 15,325,920 12,770,471 28,096,391
Turnips, do 18,206,959 892,434 19,099,393
Man. Wurz., Do 546,971 207,256 754,227
Carrots, do 1,905,598 293,067 2,198,665
Beans, do 49,143 21,384 70,527
Clover and Timothy Seeds, do 61,818 33,954 95,772
Hay, tons 861,844 689,977 1,551
Hops, do 247,052 53,387 300,439
Maple Sugar, lbs 6,970,605 9,325,147 16,295,752
Cider, gallons 1,567,831 21,011 1,588,842
Wool, lbs 3,659,766 1,967,388 5,627,154
Butter, lbs 26,828,264 15,906,949 42,735,213
Cheese, lbs 2,687,172 686,297 3,373,469
Flax and Hemp, lbs 1,225,934 975,827 2,201,761
Tobacco   777,426    

The total value of these products of the farm in 1860 was close upon one hundred millions of dollars! And if we add the increase of that same year on the live stock, the improvements made on old farms, and the new lands brought into cultivation, a pretty good estimate may be formed of the highly satisfactory condition of the farming interest in Canada.

And then the work is but begun. The total number of acres that have passed from the Government into private hands is-

In Upper Canada     13,354,907
In Lower Canada     10,375,418
Total acres sold     23,730,325
Of this there are in cultivation, acres:--    
In Upper Canada 6,051,619  
In Lower Canada 4,804,235  
Leaving yet wild   12,874,471

Not one-half of the land already in private hands, therefore, is yet cultivated, to say nothing of the many millions of acres of wild lands still undisposed of by Government. The war on the wilderness has but begun, and assuredly the prospects before agriculturists is encouraging enough, and the field of exertion wide enough to stimulate the best and most ambitious to active and persevering exertion for the advancement of this greatest interest of the country.

The following extracts from letters addressed to a Select Committee of the Honorable the Legislative Council of Canada, appointed to take into consideration the subject of emigration, by leading agriculturalists, merchants and manufacturers in various sections of the Province, &c., will, it is thought, prove of general interest.

From John Dunlop, Esq., of Craigowan, by Woodstock, C.W., President of the N.R. Agricultural Association, County of Oxford, C.W.

"When on a visit to the United States and Canada, in 1858, I was so pleased with the appearance of Upper Canada, that I decided to remove thither with my family, from Ayrshire, Scotland. I visited various localities, but preferred Oxford county; purchased a property near Woodstock, the county town, and in the following year removed.

"This is a beautiful district of country, with fine rich undulating land, well wooded and watered, intersected by good gravel roads and centrally situated for access to the 'Great Western,' the 'Buffalo and Lake Huron,' and the 'Grand Trunk' railroads, where there are excellent cash markets for all sorts of farm produce.

"There is a most industrious and energetic population, who make excellent and agreeable neighbors.

"The appearance of the district, when the orchards are in full blossom, is really beautiful, as almost every homestead is adorned with a large orchard, there being a great demand for the produce. Delicious apples, pears, plums, cherries, native grapes, and small fruit of all sorts, grow most luxuriantly; peaches and nectarines do very well near the lake shores.

"The soil of this district is generally of a rich alluvial loam-intermixed with particles of limestone-capable of raising most of the cereal and root crops to perfection; and as the farms are generally well watered, either by springs or running water, it is one of the best districts in Canada for dairy purposes or mixed husbandry.

"In vegetable production I do not think we can be excelled especially in bulbous roots, pumpkins, squashes, melons, citrons, cucumbers, tomatoes, cauliflowers, &c., &c.

"By a judicious system of agriculture, the soil will product good crops; I have seen wheat, peas, flax, clover, timothy, parsnips, carrots, potatoes and Swedish turnips, that would compare favorably with British produce on soil of similar quality; and the produce of dairy cows will compare favorably to that in Ayrshire.

"The stock exhibited at the annual show of the Provincial Association of Upper Canada, really consists in great part of first class animals and would not disgrace any of the British exhibitions, especially in Durham, Devon, Hereford, Galloway and Ayrshire cattle, and in Cotswold, Leicester, Hampshire and South Down sheep, many of which are, in fact, imported prize animals. The swine, also, show good breeding, and some really fine animals are exhibited. The horses, as a class, are generally light and smart, and do not come up to the standard of the Clydesdale farm horse, but are, I believe, better suited for the country than many show horses.

"The machinery and farm implements have been much improved within the last few years, and now display excellent workmanship and great ingenuity. In reaping machines and hay rakes I think we are far ahead of the British farmer. The exhibition of grain, roots, vegetables, fruits, flowers, works of manufacture and art, shewn at 'The Provincial,' are really most interesting and creditable, and prove that the Province is capable of producing an exhibition worthy of attention and remark.

"The climate of this district is very healthy, the situation being in about the highest portion of the peninsula; we have generally. A cool breeze off the lakes in summer, and from the belts of forest still left uncut, we have ample screen from the winter's cold blast. I infinitely prefer the climate here to that of Ayrshire.

"Vegetation progresses most rapidly; it is surprising to see the progress made in a short time, and how soon the crop comes to perfection; the seeds must be got in early to secure good crops; the dry climate gives the farmer a great advantage in the harvesting, after which he has a long season of favorable weather for preparing the land for the ensuing crop. During winter he has little also to do, but marketing, providing fuel, and attending to the stock.

"Agriculturalists of moderate capital would do very well in this district, as plenty of farms are to be rented at 6 to 12 shillings sterling per acre; or land is to be purchased according to the state of improvement in clearing and buildings, for $25 to $60 per acre... to be continued

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© Marjorie P. Kohli, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 1999-2007
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