Immigrants to Canada

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The following extracts are from this publication.

Allan Line Illustrated Tourists' Guide to Canada
and the United States (c1880)

Allan Line Illustrated Tourists' Guide
to Canada and the United States


Allan Line of Royal Mail Steamers
Chief Office: 19, James Street, Liverpool


The extensive line of Ocean Steamers known by the name of the Allan Line is one fo the most successful and best known of any in the commercial world. It has developed itself from a small beginning into a fleet of forty-one of the finest and most improved class of steamers and clippers on the ocean. The Canadian portion of British North American territory, or, as it is now called, the Dominion of Canada, so early as 1852, animated by that spirit of enterprise which, once awakened, has never since slumbered, became satisfied that the circumstances in which the colonists were placed, and their growing requirements, were such as to justify the effort to secure a communication of their own with the mother country by means of an independent line of steamers. Accordingly, the Canadian Government, recognising this ardent desire of the people of Canada, entered into a contract with the Messrs. Allan for the running of a Line of Mail Steam-ships suited to the requirements of the passenger and cargo traffic between Liverpool and Canada. With perfect propriety it may be here stated that the gentlemen named above were pre-eminently qualified for the organisation and carry out of such an important undertaking, being possessed of sufficient capital, and having an extensive knowledge of the Canadian trade, in which, as merchants and shipowners, they had been long previously engaged, and the Allan Line of Steamers has been mainly instrumental in opening up one of the most beautiful and most fertile of our British territories.

The Messrs. Allan despatch a Steamer from Liverpool for Quebec and Montreal every Thursday, calling at Londonderry on Friday to embark passengers and mails; and a Steamer for St. John's (Newfoundland), Halifax, and Baltimore every alternative Tuesday, calling on the next day at Queenstown. As regards the first of these, the route taken is the most eligible for Canada and the Western States, as it combines the advantages of the shortest sea passage with speedy inland conveyance; and with regard to the latter, it may be claimed that Baltimore is the most direct route to the Southern and Central States, while Halifax is the Mail route for Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward's Island, and Bermuda. The Weekly Service between Liverpool and Quebec was commenced in 1859, but for two seasons previously there had been a Fortnightly Service between the two Ports, and that arrangement would have begun in the year 1854 but for the outbreak of the Russian war. That conflict naturally interfered very greatly with our commerce with other countries; Canada in particular suffered from it, as the whole of the Allan vessels were chartered by the English and French Governments for the transport of troops and the conveyance of stores and implements of warfare. From 1859, however, on the termination of the war, trade revived, and a Weekly Mail Service between Liverpool and Canada has been conducted by the Messrs. Allan ever since.

The Allan Line have also Weekly Steamers between Glasgow, Quebec, and Montreal in summer; while, in winter, the same Steamers are employed between Glasgow, Liverpool, and the River Plate.

As before stated, the St. Lawrence route to Quebec is the shortest in mileage from port to port, even by the route via Cape Race; and during the Summer months, when the Steamers take the route by the Straits of Belle Isle, the distance is still further shortened by about twenty hours. It is, moreover, considered to be the safer way, in consequence of there being much less traffic along that route. Another and a very important advantage of the route by Belle Isle is, that it is in reality only five and a half days' journey from the north of Ireland, where the Allan boats call. The remainder of the passage is in comparatively smooth water, the advantage being more especially apparent on the Homeward journey, when during the first few days passengers have time to become accustomed to the peculiarities of life on board ship before they get out into the billowy waters of the Atlantic. The route is daily growing in favour with passengers bound to and from the Western States; for in addition to the facilities of water conveyance afforded by the fine chain of lakes, upon which steamers ply day and night with the utmost regularity, the Grand Trunk and the other Railways of Canada have Through connections with all places in the West, including San Francisco, Australia, China, and Japan.

The superiority of the St. Lawrence route for the rapid transit of mails and passengers has been the more conspicuous since 1876, when arrangements were completed to land and embark mails at Rimouski, 160 miles below Quebec. There is direct rail communication between Rimouski and Quebec.

The first vessels built by Messrs. Allan for the Canadian service were of 1500 tons gross measurement; but as the trade increased, steamers of larger size and capable of greater speed were added. The fleet consists entirely of screw steamers, all of which were built by eminent and most experienced shipbuilding firms on the Clyde, and are fitted with all approved modern appliances. The Allan vessels from the outset were favourites in the passenger trade, and have well maintained their reputation to the present day.

The Sardinian may be taken as the representative of the Allan Steamers now running. Like several of the other Steamers belonging to the Line, she was built and had her engines constructed by Messrs. Robert Steele and Co., of Greenock, a firm whose fame as shipbuilders and engineers is unsurpassed even among the world-renowned shipbuilders and marine engineers of the Clyde. She measures 400 feet in length between perpendiculars, is 42 feet 3 inches in width of beam, and is 35 feet 8 inches in moulded depth. Her register is 2577 tons measurement, with a gross tonnage of 4376 tons. She is impelled by a pair of inverted direct-acting compound high and low pressure engines. These engines are supplied with all the most recent improvements for combining power with economy of fuel, and securing smooth and equable working. They are furnished with superheating and surface-condensing apparatus of the most improved construction, and everything which experience could dictate, or science suggest, to ensure efficiency of working has been sedulously applied without stint or regard to first cost. Her high-pressure cylinder measures 60 inches and her low-pressure cylinder 104 inches in diameter, and the pistons have 4 feet 6 inches of a stroke. The steam for working these immense and powerful engines is generated in 10 oblong boilers of enormous strength, which are heated by twenty furnaces fired athwart ship. When working at full speed the engines make about sixty revolutions, and at that number of revolutions the ship has a regulated and sustained speed of fourteen knots per hour, the indicated horse-power being calculated at 2800.

The Sardinian was built under special survey, to take the highest classification for iron Steam-ships. She is divided into seven watertight compartments by six watertight iron bulkheads. Her awning and spar decks are both iron from stem to stern, and from side to side of the ship, and firmly riveted[sic] to every deck-beam; her main deck, also, is of iron, from the after hold to the main hold, and from side to side of the ship, except that portion which is occupied by the engine space. In addition to these precautions for ensuring extra strength to the hull of the ship, heavy iron stanchions have been introduced on every deck, and at every beam where they could be introduced with advantage. To those who are acquainted with the details of shipbuilding, the preceding remarks will be sufficient to convey the idea that the Sardinian is, in every respect, a most substantial specimen of marine architecture; to those who are less familiar with the technical arrangements of the art, it may suffice to say that all the advantages to be derived from experience, scientific skill, careful surveillance, and a liberal expenditure, have been sedulously applied in the construction of this noble vessel, to render her in all respects a safe, strong, and comfortable sea-going craft, worthy of the name and reputation of the firm for which she was built.

While thus carefully and thoughtfully providing for the general strength of the structure, and the proportionately important power by which the ship has to be impelled, other and subsidiary, although in the aggregate scarcely less important, means for guiding, regulating, and assisting her in her voyaging, in aiding her into and out of dock, and in the important operations of loading and unloading cargo, together with those numerous appliances for securing comfort to all on board, are provided for on the most liberal scale.

The Sardinian carries ten large boats, all of which are of the best life-boat construction, and as regards her passenger accommodation, she has provision for 180 saloon, 60 intermediate, and 1000 steerage. The cabin passengers of the Sardinian are carried in the saloon and the state-rooms immediately connected with it. The saloon is in every respect a gorgeous palatial apartment. It is 80 feet in length by 41 feet in breadth, and is lofty in the ceiling. It is situated on the awning deck, copiously lighted by a lantern cupola in the centre of the ceiling; this is augmented by an abundance of side-lights, the combination producing an amount of effulgence which, united to the gorgeous furnishings, produces an effect at once gratifying and dazzling. The ceiling is delicately panelled in French white, enriched with gold mouldings. The wainscoting of the saloon is richly panelled in highly-polished walnutwood; relieved by a delicate stringing of bright rosewood, the panel framing, rails, and mounters being of polished teakwood. This is surmounted by a rich gold carved cornice, the inter-space between the panels being filled by handsome fluted columns of ebony, with rich gold capitals. The seats are upholstered in very rich crimson velvet. As in the other steamers belonging to this line, the Sardinian is furnished with a hot-plate table, from which the passengers are supplied with viands served à la Russe. This style of service has been found to give great satisfaction, as by it passengers are saved all trouble and inconvenience as to carving for themselves or fellow-passengers. The saloon, it should be stated, is furnished with a high-class pianoforte, and a well-selected library of books for the use of the passengers. In short, everything which can conduce to comfort--indeed, luxurious enjoyment--has been abundantly provided, and as a whole, the saloon, with its rich furniture and graceful surroundings, presents a coup d'oeil of rare beauty and magnificence. In connection with the saloon there is also on deck above some additional accommodation for the saloon passengers, consisting of an exquisitely-furnished ladies' sitting-room or boudoir, and a charming snuggery fitted up as a smoke-room. These two special apartments cannot fail to serve as a help to beguile the tedium of even the most satisfactory sea voyage. The dormitories or state-rooms are on the main and upper passenger decks. They are roomy, capacious, and well lighted, as well as fully supplied with ventilation. They are elegantly furnished with bed and toilette appliances, and every means has been adopted to secure comfort and safety to all the inmates. The staterooms are fitted in this vessel, as in the others of the fleet, with electric bells, and in each berth there is a pair of life-saving pillows, specially adapted for fastening to the person in case of emergency.

The intermediate passenger berths are placed on the upper passenger deck, the steerage being located on the upper and second passenger decks; and both classes are supplied with cooked victuals of the best quality. The sanitary arrangements all through the ship are of the most perfect kind. A distinguishing feature as to carrying steerage passengers by the ships of this line is that the Company provides the use of a suitable and ample outfit for the voyage, whereby passengers may be saved the trouble, inconvenience, and loss consequent on having to supply their own outfit previous to embarking. The outfit consists of patent life-preserving pillows, mattress, pannikin to hold a pint and a-half, plate, knife, nickel-plated fork, and nickel-plated spoon, and the charge for the use of these articles for the voyage is only a very few shillings.

The Polynesian is a sister ship to the Sardinian, and has just (February, 1880) been thoroughly overhauled in every department, and in great measure refitted.

The influence of the "Allan Line" upon the prosperity of British North America is well recognised. Its benefits, bestowed by excellent management, are warmly acknowledged by all classes of the Canadian population, who agree in holding that, were it not for these magnificent Steamers which run weekly to and fro between Liverpool and Quebec, at fares so low as to be within the reach of almost any working man, the immigration into the Dominion would be far behind what it is.

The "Allan" Company, it should be observed, were the first to adopt the plan of having flush or covered decks to their steamers--a system now all but universally adopted in Transatlantic vessels. For many years they saw the necessity for this "covered-in" arrangement in the case of ships that had to be driven at a very high speed in all kinds of weather; and having once taken the matter up, they persevered, notwithstanding the technical rules of the Board of Tread respecting the tonnage measurement for harbour and other dues. For a long time the Allan steamers were thus labouring under a very great disadvantage in the matter of expense, as compared with open-deck ships of only similar capacity; but eventually, when the attention of the Board of Trade was arrested by the circumstances connected with the loss of the London in the Bay of Biscay, that Department conceded the point in favour of the "covered-in" ships.

A carefully observed rule of the Company, that in case of fog, the speed must be reduced to dead slow--affords the best protection from a special danger of Atlantic travelling. And the fact that the steamers of the Allan Line are not insured with appeal to passengers as one of the best guarantees that every precaution is exercised in the management and navigation.

The latest addition to the fleet is the Parisian, contracted for in November, 1879, with Messrs. Napier, of Glasgow, the celebrated ship-builders and engineers. She is a large passenger steamer of 5500 tons, built of steel, made on the Siemens-Martin principle, the material used in the construction being subjected to the most rigid tests both by Lloyd's and by the owners' own surveyor. The Parisian is fitted throughout her entire length with a double bottom, divided into water-tight compartments. This mode of structure, besides adding greatly to the strength of the steamer, gives a special security in case of grounding or other mishap--injury to the bottom of such a vessel being harmless, as if by any mischance the outer bottom were injured, the inner one would support her. This steamer has also side-keels, to increase her stability at sea, and keep her free from much of the rolling motion which so disagreeable to passengers on Atlantic voyages. Messrs. Allan have already running on their line a steamer built entirely of steel, and with the double-bottom arrangement. The vessel in question--the Buenos Ayrean-- is the largest steam vessel that has yet been built of steel. The Parisian is 440 feet long, 46 feet broad, and 36 feet deep, and 5500 tons gross tonnage. Her engines are of great power, three-cylindered, and built to the designs of the Company's superintending engineer, Mr. William Wallace, of Liverpool. The saloon is placed amidships and fitted up in the most complete and sumptuous manner, and she has permanent accommodation for about 200 cabin passengers. She has also room for over 1000 steerage. Every appliance that can increase the safety or enhance the comfort of passengers will be found in the Parisian. She takes her place among the other well-known steam-ships of the Line in April, 1881.

The Sarmatian, a favourite steamer of the Line, was the vessel selected for conveyance of H.R.H. Princess Louise and the Marquis of Lorne to Canada, in November, 1878, on His Excellency assuming the post of Governor-General of Canada. The same steamer conveyed Her Royal Highness from Quebec to Liverpool in October, 1879, and again from Liverpool to Halifax on the 22nd January, 1880.

The Liverpool Press, of January 22nd, thus commented on the embarkation:--
"According to arrangement, her Royal Highness the Princess Louise (Marchioness of Lorne) arrived to-day in Liverpool, accompanied by the Prince of Wales and the Duke of Edinburgh, on her way to rejoin her husband, the Marquis of Lorne, in Canada. As it was known what time the special train bearing the royal party would reach Lime-street station, the public assembled in large numbers to welcome the illustrious visitors. Strictly private though the visit was desired to be by their Royal Highnesses, the local authorities necessarily had to make due preparation for the reception of the royal party. The public were excluded from the Lime-street station, except those privileged to be present by ticket. The spacious central platform in the new wing of the station was reserved for the approach of the royal train, and opposite where the party were to alight the floor was carpeted; and at either end of this space were rows of seats for the more privileged spectators. Punctually at 2-30 p.m. the special train entered the station. The Duke of Edinburgh was the first to alight, then came the Princess Louise and the Prince of Wales. The Mayor and Mayoress were introduced to the Royal Visitors, and a young lady, a member of the Mayor's family, had the honour of presenting the Marchioness of Lorne with a beautiful bouquet of flowers. Her Royal Highness looked exceedingly well, as did also her brothers, the Duke of Edinburgh, in his handsome uniform as a admiral of the Royal Navy, especially so. The suite of the Princess are the Hon. Mrs. Langham, Lady Pelly, Captain Chater, A.D.C., and Captain Collins. Colonel M'Neill, V.C., C.B., equerry-in-waiting to the Queen, is in attendance on the Princess by her Majesty's commands. Of the two carriages--the Mayor's state carriage and the open landau--placed at her disposal, the Princess chose the latter, and, entering this, the royal party at once drove off to the stage, amid the cheers of the many thousands of spectators who had assembled along the line of route. Fine weather favoured the public assembled to greet the visitors, and as the royal party drove along plainly visible to the spectators, the cheering was frequent and hearty, and was repeatedly acknowledged by the Princess, the Prince of Wales, and the Royal Duke.

Embarking on the Sarmatian

The time at which the royal party would arrive at the Landing Stage was pretty well known, the approaches to which were thronged with anxious spectators. A space for the passage of the carriages was kept clear from the entrance to the Prince's Pierhead to No. 3 bridge, and on either side the path was crowded. Beyond No. 5 bridge, barriers were erected, and behind them was a considerable crowd. It was arranged that the royal party should alight at the head of No. 4 bridge, and the floor of this bridge was covered with scarlet cloth, as was also the Landing Stage at the foot of the bridge, where the Allan tender Stormcock was in readiness to convey the royal party to the Sarmatian. On the stage at the foot of the bridge was stationed Superintendent Parks, with two boats' crews of the River Police, and a guard of honour of blue-jackets from H.M.S. Resistance, consisting of 110 men under Lieutenant Henderson. The police band occupied a position at the rear of the guard of honour. Mr. T.D. Hornby (Chairman of the Dock Board), Mr. Squarey (the Solicitor), and Mr. Gittins (Secretary), together with several members of the trust, and Mr. R.G. Allan and Mr. J.H. Allan, representing the owners of the Sarmatian, awaited the arrival of the royal party. The shipping in the river and docks was gaily decorated for the occasion. The blue-jackets presented arms when the royal visitors stepped on the Landing Stage, and the police band played a few bars of the National Anthem, while the spectators cheered heartily. The royal visitors were received by Mr. Hornby and Mr. R.G. Allan, and with no further delay than was necessary for the royal party to take a glance at the scene, they proceeded on board the tender. The Princess Louise was the first to pass up the gangway, followed by the Prince of Wales, Duke of Edinburgh, and the members of the suite. When on board they formed a group on the hurricane deck, and as the tender was casting off the band played "God Bless the Prince of Wales," amid loud cheers from the spectators on the landing Stage, which were acknowledged by her Royal Highness. The Stormcock was quickly alongside the Sarmatian, around which many of the ferry steamers hovered with their freights of passengers to enable them to get a glimpse of the royal party. The hoisting of the Royal Standard on the Sarmatian was the signal to those on shore that the royal party had embarked. The Sarmatian then steamed slowly down the river, and as she passed the North Fort, a Royal Salute of twenty-one guns was fired in honour of the illustrious company on board. Shortly afterwards the Stormcock conveyed the Prince of Wales and the Duke of Edinburgh on board the Admiralty yacht Lively, and the Sarmatian was left to proceed on her voyage. The embarkation was accomplished without the least annoyance to the royal visitors, and the arrangements to secure this were excellently carried out by Messrs. Allan.

Special arrangements were made on board the Sarmatian for the accommodation of her Royal Highness during the return voyage to Canada, the whole of the apartments on the port side of the vessel being reserved for her and the suite which accompanies her. The sleeping apartment of the Marchioness of Lorne is fitted up most elegantly in the French style, and her sitting-room, immediately adjoining, is a perfect model of refinement and exquisite taste, the panels being richly upholstered in crimson satin. A heating apparatus has been fitted up between the two apartments, and there is a bath-room immediately adjoining.

It is no secret that her Royal Highness in her transatlantic voyages has great confidence in the good ship Sarmatian, and her skilful commander, Captain A.D. Aird. Shortly, indeed, before she landed at Liverpool, on her return from Canada, she arranged for the Sarmatian to take her out again on the 22nd January, for which purpose the necessary changes had to be made, officers and crew on the intervening trip having had but a few days in port. The Sarmatian bids fair to be quite an historical steamer. She was chartered by the Government, it may be remembered, during the Ashantee war, to convey troops to Cape Coast Castle, and on her arrival to Plymouth, at the close of the war, was the centre of a great ovation. During the interval her commander, Captain Aird, had rendered important public service, by an unusually quick run from Cape Coast Castle to Gibraltar, the bearer of an important telegram, as to the capture of Coomassie, from Sir Garnet Wolseley, the commander of the British forces on the West Coast, to the War Office. The conduct of Captain Aird excited much favourable comment at the time, and has no doubt had its share in stamping him in the eyes of the official authorities as not only a skilful navigator, but as a man of combined energy and prudence, to whom the care of a member of the royal house might for a third time be entrusted with confidence, all the more as it had been the specially-expressed wish of her Royal Highness herself."

A rapid passage of the Sardinian, Captain Dutton, may be regarded as an important event in the annals of the Atlantic steam-ship trade. For the first time on record, a steam-ship arrived in the port of Quebec on the eighth day after leaving Liverpool. The Sardinian left Moville at 5.15 p.m. on June 6, 1879, and landed her mails at Rimouski at noon on the 13th, being only 6 days 23 hours and 30 minutes, allowing for difference of time. The passage from land to land--Moville to Belle Isle--was accomplished in 5 days 20 minutes, while the passengers only lost sight of land for 4 days 19 hours. Every one who has crossed the Atlantic well knows what the sight of land means to passengers even out on a voyage of only eight or ten days. It is related, in connection with this splendid run of the Sardinian, that some of the passengers, who had never travelled by the route before, absolutely refused to believe that they had crossed the Atlantic when in sight of the Western shore, and when they reached Quebec they were so far from having got through the occupations usual on an Atlantic voyage, that they were quite incredulous of having got to their journey's end. It was certainly the first instance of a ship reaching the port of Quebec on the eighth day after leaving Liverpool.

THE FLEET OF THE ALLAN LINE
STEAMERS

Name Tonnage Name Tonnage
Parisian
Sardinian
Polynesian
Circassian
Sarmatian
Moravian
Peruvian
Scandinavian
Prussian
Hibernian
Caspian
Nova Scotian

5,500
4,376
3,983
3,724
3,647
3,323
3,038
3,068
3,030
2,752
2,728
3,305

Buenos Ayrean
Grecian
Nestorian
Austrian
Canadian
Manitoban
Phœnician
Waldensian
Lucerne
Newfoundland
Acadian
4,005
3,600
2,689
2,458
2,906
2,395
2,356
2,256
1,925
1,000
931

Steam Tonnage ... ... 68,993

Name

Tonnage

Name

Tonnage

Glendaruel
Glenmorag
Glenfinart
Glenbervie
Gleniffer
Glencairn
Abeona
St. Patrick

1,761
1,576
1,530
800
800
1,564
979
992

Romsdal
Ardmillan
Strathearn
Strathblane
Ravenscrag
Pomona
Chippewa
Medora
City of Montreal

1,827
1,655
1,705
1,364
1,263
1,196
1,072
781
1,187

Sailing-ship Tonnage ... ... 22,052

TOTAL TONNAGE

STEAMERS 68,995
SAILING SHIPS 22,052

91,047

The following are some of the Passages made during the last three summers:--

1877

Left Moville (Londonderry) Landed Mails at Rimouski Time
Sarmatian
Sarmatian
Sardinian
Peruvian
Sarmatian
Circassian
Moravian
Polynesian
Sarmatian
Sardinian
Friday,
Friday,
Friday,
Friday,
Friday,
Friday,
Friday,
Friday,
Friday,
Friday,
May11,
June 22,
July 13,
July 20,
Aug 3,
Aug 10,
Aug 17,
Sept 7,
Sept 14,
Oct 5,
5
5
5
5
5
5 10
5 45
5
6 50
6
p.m.
p.m.
p.m.
p.m.
p.m.
p.m.
p.m.
p.m.
p.m.
p.m.
Saturday,
Friday,
Saturday,
Saturday,
Saturday,
Friday,
Saturday,
Saturday,
Friday,
Saturday,
May 19,
June 29,
July 21,
July 28,
Aug 11,
Aug 17,
Aug 25,
Sept 15,
Sept 21,
Oct 13,
8 20
10
8 15
8
4
9 15
7
9
6
1
a.m.
p.m.
a.m.
a.m.
a.m.
p.m.
a.m.
a.m.
p.m.
a.m.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
19h
9h
19h
19h
15h
8h
17h
20h
3h
11h
50m
30m
45m

30m
30m
45m
45m
30m
40m
30m

1878

Sarmatian
Sardinian
Sarmatian
Sarmatian
Sardinian
Polynesian
Sarmatian
Sardinian
Friday,
Friday,
Friday,
Friday,
Friday,
Friday,
Friday,
Friday,
May 31,
June 28,
July 12,
Aug 23,
Sept 20,
Sept 27,
Oct 4,
Nov 1,
5
5 10
5
5 15
4 45
5 10
5
5 10
p.m.
p.m.
p.m.
p.m.
p.m.
p.m.
p.m.
p.m.
Saturday,
Saturday,
Friday,
Friday,
Saturday,
Saturday,
Friday,
Friday,
June 8,
July 6,
July 19
Aug 30,
Sept 28,
Oct 5,
Oct 11,
Nov 8,
10 40
3 45
7
6 15
6 15
6 30
7
6 20
a.m.
a.m.
p.m.
p.m.
a.m.
a.m.
p.m.
p.m.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
22h
15h
6h
5h
18h
17h
6h
5h
10m
5m
30m
30m
0m
50m
30m
40m

1879

Sardinian
Moravian
Peruvian
Circassian
Peruvian
Friday,
Friday,
Friday,
Friday,
Friday,
June 6,
June 13,
June 20,
July 11,
Aug 1,
5
5 15
5
5
5
p.m.
p.m.
p.m.
p.m.
p.m.
Friday,
Friday,
Saturday,
Friday,
Friday,
June 13,
June 20,
June 28,
July 18,
Aug 8,
Noon
10 30
2 30
11 30
6 30

p.m.
a.m.
p.m.
p.m.
6d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
23h
9h
14h
11h
6h
30m
45m
0m
0m
0m
Embarked Mails at Rimouski
(Greenwich Time)
Landed Mails at Moville Time

1877

Sardinian
Peruvian
Polynesian
Sarmatian
Moravian
Peruvian
Sarmatian
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
June 24,
July 1,
July 8,
July 15,
Sept 9,
Sept 23,
Oct 7,
3 45
5 45
3 35
4 45
4 30
3 30
4 10
a.m.
a.m.
a.m.
a.m.
a.m.
a.m.
a.m.
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
July 1,
July 8,
July 15,
July 22,
Sept 16,
Sept 30,
Oct. 14,
7 50
4 15
10 5
9 15
10 25
1 30
11
a.m.
p.m.
a.m.
a.m.
p.m.
p.m.
a.m.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
4h
10h
6h
4h
17h
10h
5h
5m
30m
30m
30m
55m
0m
50m

1878

Moravian
Polynesian
Circassian
Polynesian
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
July 7,
July 28,
Aug 11,
Sept 8,
5 50
3 15
3 30
2 50
a.m.
a.m.
a.m.
a.m.
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
July 14,
Aug 4,
Aug 18,
Sept 15
1
3 30
7 20
9 15
p.m.
p.m.
p.m.
a.m.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7h.
15h.
15h
6h
10m
15m
50m
25m

1879

Circassian
Polynesian
Sarmatian
Sardinian
Sardinian
Moravian
Peruvian
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
June 28,
July 20,
July 27,
Aug 10,
Sept 21,
Sept 28,
Oct 5,
2 5
4 10
2 40
3
4
3 40
2 50
a.m.
a.m.
a.m.
a.m.
a.m.
a.m.
a.m.
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
Sunday,
June 29,
July 27,
Aug 3,
Aug 17,
Sept 28,
Oct 5,
Oct 12,
2
Noon
2 30
7 30
7 20
11 40
8 30
p.m.

P.m.
a.m.
a.m.
a.m.
a.m.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
7d.
11h
7h
11h
4h
3h
8h
5h
55m
50m
50m
30m
20m
0m
40m
The Peruvian sailed from Halifax at 7 p.m. on the 27th December, 1879, and arrived in the Mersey at 1 15 p.m. on Sunday the 4th January. Allowing for difference of time, the run occupied only 7 days 14 hours from Halifax to Liverpool.

Dr. A.W. Thorold, Bishop of Rochester, on a Visit to Canada

Writing of a Summer Trip to Canada by the "Allan" Line, his Lordship says:--

"Given three good things--five weeks of holiday, a wholesome liking for salt water, and fifty pounds--can you do better with them than go to Niagara? See what you will get by it. First, you will be boarded and lodged in a ship of a steam fleet, beaten by none in the Atlantic for safety, comfort, discipline, and cheapness: I mean Allan's Canadian Line. You will have at least twenty days (10 each way) of the most pure and invigorating air that human lungs can inhale; and quite sufficient to set up even a jaded Londoner. You will have a varied, amusing, and by no means unprofitable opportunity of studying human nature among numerous fellow-passengers of all countries, ages, and conditions. You will ascend the St. Lawrence, which is one of the most stately and interesting rivers in the world. You will pass through a district of Canada which will bring you into contact with its oldest civilisation and its most recent industries; its noblest public buildings, and the grandest memories of its early time. You may shoot rapids, gaze on the outskirts of the primeval forest, see native Indians on railways, travel in gilded saloons, which at night become bedrooms, or, if going by water, in large steamers, some of which may accurately be described as floating palaces. Everywhere you will hear your native tongue spoken; you will see your native flag floating in the breeze; you will be surprised, let us hope gratified, by a hearty loyalty; you will see a young empire, in all the flush and enthusiasm of increasing greatness, governing itself with decision, and developing its resources with such an amazing rapidity, that, as was once said quaintly of the rush of a Canadian spring, if you would only put your head to the ground you would hear the grass grow. Last, but not least, you will see what, all your life afterwards, you will be glad to have seen, and what, with every returning summer, you will long once more to visit, if but for one short afternoon--nature's most peerless, most indescribable, most unapproachable, most sublime marvel--Niagara Falls!

My first impression of the St. Lawrence, so much more beautiful than ever I expected it to be, quite convinced me that this is the right way of entering North America; and not the less so because the voyage, from land to land, is two days shorter than to New York.

From the grandeur of its site, and the exquisiteness, as well as extent of the views from it, Quebec has but few rivals. The view from the Esplanade, looking down the river towards Orleans, reminded me of the Bosphorus; but the noblest prospect is from the Citadel, north over the city and the St. Charles River. You look away towards far-off azure hills, clothed with primeval forest, and in all variety of rolling or peaked outline--one in particular standing by itself, just like Mount Tabor. Then down the river, with its ships and steamers, and smaller craft of all kinds, and the white houses on the Island of Orleans, and on the far horizon, blue with their indescribable blue, a grand mountain range, the like of which we should never see till we returned there again."

Charles Dickens thus wrote of his visit to the Falls of Niagara:--"Between five and six next morning," he says, "we arrived at Buffalo, where we breakfasted; and being too near the Great Falls to wait patiently anywhere else, we set off by the train, the same morning, at nine o'clock, to Niagara. It was a miserable day; chilly and raw; a damp mist falling; and the trees in that northern region quite bare and wintry. Whenever the rain halted, I listened for the roar, and was instantly straining my eyes in the direction where I knew the Falls must be, from seeing the river rolling on towards them, every moment expecting to behold the spray. Within a few minutes of our stopping, not before, I saw two great white clouds rising up slowly and majestically from the depths of the earth. That was all. At length we alighted; and then for the first time, I heard the might rush of water, and felt the ground tremble underneath my feet. The bank is very steep, and was slippery with rain and half-melted ice. I hardly know how I got down, but I was soon at the bottom, and climbing, with two English Officers who were crossing and had joined me, over some broken rocks, deafened by the noise, half-blinded by the spray, and wet to the skin. We were at the foot of the American Fall. I could see an immense torrent of water tearing headlong down from some great height, but had no idea of shape, or situation, or anything but vague immensity. When we were seated in the little ferry-boat, and were crossing the swollen river immediately before both cataracts, I began to feel what it was; but I was in a manner stunned, and unable to comprehend the vastness of the scene. It was not until I came on Table Rock, and looked--Great Heaven, on what a fall of bright green what!--that it came upon me in its full might and majesty. Then, when I felt how near to my Creator I was standing, the first effect, and the enduring one--instant and lasting--of the tremendous spectacle, was peace. Peace of mind, tranquillity, calm recollections of the dead, great thoughts of Eternal rest and happiness: nothing of gloom or terror. Niagara was at once stamped upon my heart, an image of beauty; to remain there, changeless and indelible, until its pulses cease to beat, for ever. Oh, how the strife and trouble of daily life receded from my view, and lessened in the distance, during the ten memorable days we passed on that enchanted ground! What voices spoke from out the thundering water; what faces, faded from the earth, looked out upon me from its gleaming depths; what heavenly promise glistened in those angels' tears, the drops of many hues, that showered around, and twined themselves about the gorgeous arches which the changing rainbows made! I never stirred in all that time from the Canadian side, whither I had gone at first. I never crossed the river again; for I knew there were people on the other shore, and in such a place it is natural to shun strange company. To wander to and fro all day, and see the cataracts from all points of view; to stand upon the edge of the Great Horse-shoe Falls, marking the hurried water gathering strength as it approached the verge, yet seeming, too, to pause before it shot into the gulf below; to gaze from the river's level up at the torrent as it came streaming down; to climb the neighbouring heights and watch it through the trees, and see the wreathing water in the rapids hurrying on to take its fearful plunge; to linger in the shadow of the solemn rocks three miles below; watching the river as, stirred by no visible cause, it heaved and eddied and awoke the echoes, being troubled yet, far down beneath the surface, by its giant leap; to have Niagara before me, lighted by the sun and by the moon; red in the day's decline, and grey as evening slowly fell upon it; to look upon it every day, and wake up in the night and hear its ceaseless voice: this was enough. I think in every quiet season now, still do those waters roll and leap, and roar and tumble, all day long; still are the rainbows spanning them a hundred feet below. Still, when the sun is on them, do they shine and glow like molten gold. Still, when the day is gloomy, do they fall like snow, or seem to crumble away like the front of a great chalk cliff, or roll down the rock like dense white smoke. But always does the mighty stream appear to die as it comes down, and always from its unfathomable grave arises that tremendous ghost of spray and mist which is never laid; which has haunted this place with the same dread solemnity since darkness brooded on the deep, and that first flood before the deluge--light--came rushing on creation at the word of God."

RATES OF PASSAGE

SALOON FARES
From Liverpool, Londonderry, or Queenstown,
According to position of Sleeping Cabins and the Number of Berths in same,
all having full privileges in Saloon.

To Quebec (direct)
To Montreal, via Quebec
To Halifax (direct)
To St. John's, N.F.
To Baltimore
To St. John, N.B., or Halifax, via Rimouski
£12 0 0
£12 14 6
£12 0 0
---------
£12 0 0
£13 5 0
£15 0 0
£15 14 6
£15 0 0
£13 0 0
£15 0 0
£15 0 0
£18 0 0
£18 14 6
£18 0 0
£15 0 0
£18 0 0
£18 0 0

Children under Twelve years, Half Fare. Infants under Two Years, Free.
Tickets to New York, Boston, and Philadelphia at a slight extra charge.

Intermediate Fare
Steerage
£8 8 0
£6 6 0

Children between One and Eight Years, Half Fare. Under One Year, £1 1s.

The Through Fares by this line to inland places in Canada and the States are lower than by any other route.
First-Class Return Tickets are issued at £22, £25, or £30; available for twelve months, from any of the American or Canadian ports from which the Company's steamers sail, and passengers taking Return Tickets can go out by way of Quebec or Halifax and return by way of Baltimore, or vice versa.

RETURN TICKETS
From
Liverpool or Londonderry
to
Points in the West and Back
First Class Steamer and First Class Rail
Fares for the Round Journey according to position of berth occupied on Ocean Steamer

Form Nos. Route Fares
2863 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, Detroit, Chicago, Milwaukee, Elkhart Lake, and back by same route to Liverpool £31 0 6
£34 0 6
£39 0 6
2869 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, Detroit, Chicago, Milwaukee, Green Lake, and back by same route to Liverpool £31 4 0
£34 4 0
£39 4 0
2871 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, Detroit, Chicago, Milwaukee, Green Bay, and back by same route to Liverpool £31 12 0
£34 12 0
£39 12 0
2872 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, Detroit, Chicago, St. Paul, and back (St. Paul to Lacrosse by river) by same route to Liverpool £33 10 0
£36 10 0
£41 10 0
2873 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, Chicago, St. Paul, Duluth, and back by same route to Liverpool £35 15 6
£38 15 6
£43 15 6
2874 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, Detroit, Chicago, Milwaukee, Ashland, steamer to Duluth, and back by same route to Liverpool £35 15 6
£38 15 6
£43 15 6
2875 Quebec, Liverpool, Montreal, Sarnia, steamer to Sault Ste Marie, and back by same route to Liverpool £31 5 0
£34 5 0
£39 5 0
2876 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, Toronto, Collingwood, steamer to Sault Ste Marie, and back by same route to Liverpool £31 5 0
£34 5 0
£39 5 0

RETURN TICKETS

Form Nos. Route Fares
2877 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, Sarnia, steamer to Nepigon, and back by same route to Liverpool £35 15 6
£38 15 6
£43 15 6
2878 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, Toronto, Collingwood, steamer to Nepigon, and back by same route to Liverpool £35 15 6
£38 15 6
£43 15 6
2879 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, Sarnia, steamer to Thunder Bay or Silver Islet, and back by same route to Liverpool £34 19 0
£37 19 0
£42 19 0
2880 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, Toronto, Collingwood, steamer to Thunder Bay or Silver Islet, and back by same route to Liverpool £34 19 0
£37 19 0
£42 19 0
2881 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, Sarnia, steamer to Duluth, N.P.R.R. to St. Vincent and Red River, steamer to Fort Garry or Winnipeg, and back by same route to Liverpool £43 0 0
£46 0 0
£51 0 0
2882 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, Toronto, Collingwood, steamer to Duluth, N.P.R.R. to St. Vincent and Red River, steamer to Fort Garry or Winnipeg, and back by same route to Liverpool £43 0 0
£46 0 0
£51 0 0
2883 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, Detroit, Chicago, Milwaukee, Ashland, and back by same route to Liverpool £34 15 0
£37 15 0
£42 15 0
2884 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, Detroit, Chicago, St. Paul, St. Cloud, and back by same route to Liverpool £34 18 0
£37 18 0
£42 18 0
2885 Liverpool, Quebec, Detroit, Chicago, St. Paul, St. Vincent, Winnipeg, and back by same route to Liverpool £43 5 6
£46 5 6
£51 5 6
2886 Liverpool, Quebec, Detroit, Chicago, St. Paul, St. Vincent, Winnipeg, returning same route to Chicago (or Milwaukee), thence by steamer to Sarnia, G.T. Railway to Toronto, boat and rail to Niagara Falls, back to Toronto, G.T. Railway to Quebec, and thence by steamer to Liverpool £44 15 0
£47 15 0
£52 15 0

ROUND TRIP TICKET
Liverpool to Quebec, New York, and Back.
For convenience in selecting Routes, the "Going" and "Returning" Routes are here shown separately, but the Ticket cannot be had for either part singly. Any Going Route can be selected for combination with any Returning Route to form the desired Round Trip, and the price of the Round Trip Ticket will be the amount shown for the Going Route added to that for the Returning Route.
Form Nos. Going Routes Fares
2601 Liverpool, Quebec, Portland, Boston (Rail and Sound Steamers) to New York £14 15 0
£17 15 0
£20 15 0
2603 Liverpool, Quebec, Gorham, Glen House, Top of Mount Washington, Fabyans, Portland, Boston (Rail and Sound Steamers) to New York £17 10 0
£20 10 0
£28 10 0
Form Nos. Returning Routes Fares
2600 New York to Boston (Sound Steamers and Rail), Portland, Quebec, Liverpool £14 15 0
£17 15 0
£20 15 0
2602 New York to Boston (Sound Steamers and Rail), Portland, Fabyans, Top of Mount Washington, Glen House, Gorham, Quebec, Liverpool £17 10 0
£20 10 0
£23 10 0

LIVERPOOL TO QUEBEC, THENCE TO NEW YORK, AND RETURN.

Form Nos. Going Routes Fares
2605 Liverpool, Quebec, Sherbrooke, Wells River, Concord, Boston (Rail & Sound Steamers) to New York £14 17 6
£17 17 6
£20 17 6
2607 Liverpool, Quebec, Sherbrooke, Springfield, to New York £14 17 6
£17 17 6
£20 17 6
2609 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, Prescott, Kingston, Toronto, Niagara Falls, Albany (Rail), to New York £17 0 0
£20 0 0
£23 0 0
2611 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa (Boat), Toronto, Niagara Falls, Buffalo, New York (Erie R.) £17 17 6
£20 17 6
£23 17 6
2613 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, Toronto, Niagara Falls, Buffalo, Waverley, Bethlehem, Philadelphia, New York £17 1 3
£20 1 3
£23 1 3
2615 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, Prescott, Kingston, Toronto, Detroit, Chicago, Detroit, Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Albany (Rail) to New York £20 16 3
£23 16 3
£26 16 3
Form Nos. Returning Routes Fares
2604 New York to Boston (Rail & Sound Steamer), Concord, Wells River, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Liverpool £14 17 6
£17 17 6
£20 17 6
2606 New York Springfield, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Liverpool £14 17 6
£17 17 6
£20 17 6
2608 New York (Rail) to Albany, Niagara Falls, Toronto, Kingston, Prescott, Montreal, Quebec, Liverpool £17 0 0
£20 0 0
£23 0 0
2610 New York (Erie R.) to Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal (by Boat), Quebec, Liverpool £17 17 6
£20 17 6
£23 17 6
2612 New York, Philadelphia, Bethlehem, Waverley, Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Toronto, Montreal, Quebec, Liverpool £17 1 3
£20 1 3
£23 1 3
2614 New York (Rail) to Albany, Niagara Falls, Buffalo, Detroit, Chicago, Detroit, Toronto, Kingston, Prescott, Montreal, Quebec, Liverpool £20 16 3
£23 16 3
£26 16 3

LIVERPOOL TO QUEBEC, THENCE TO NEW YORK, AND RETURN.

Form Nos. Going Routes Fares
2619 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, White River Junction, Boston (Rail and Sound Steamers) to New York £15 14 0
£18 14 0
£21 14 0
2621 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, Rutland, Troy (Rail), to New York £14 17 6
£17 17 6
£20 17 6
2623 Liverpool, Quebec, Montreal, Rouse's Point, Albany (Rail), to New York £14 17 6
£17 17 6
£20 17 6
Form Nos. Returning Routes Fares
2618 New York (Sound Steamers and Rail) to Boston, White River Junction, Montreal, Quebec, Liverpool £15 14 0
£18 14 0
£21 14 0
2620 New York, Troy, Rutland, Montreal, Quebec, Liverpool £14 17 6
£17 17 6
£20 17 6
2622 New York (Rail) to Albany, Rouse's Point, Montreal, Quebec, Liverpool £14 17 6
£17 17 6
£20 17 6
An Extension Ticket can be had at Quebec-New York to Philadelphia and Return to New York-at an additional charge of £1 0s. 6d.

CIRCULAR TICKETS
From
LIVERPOOL OR LONDONDERRY,
in connection with the Grand Trunk and other Railways
First Class Steamer and First Class Rail.
FARES FOR THE ROUND JOURNEY
according to position of berth occupied on ocean steamer.
OUT VIA QUEBEC & RETURN VIA BALTIMORE.

Form Nos. Route Fares
2569 To Quebec, Portland, Boston, New York (all Rail), Philadelphia, Baltimore, and thence by Steamer to Liverpool £26 5 0
£29 5 0
£34 5 0
2570 To Quebec, Portland, Boston, New York (Rail and Steamer), Philadelphia, Baltimore, and thence by Steamer to Liverpool £25 16 6
£28 16 6
£33 16 6
2571 To Quebec, Gorham, Summit, Fabyan, North Conway, Portland, Boston, New York (all Rail), Philadelphia, Baltimore, and thence by Steamer to Liverpool £29 4 0
£32 4 0
£37 4 0
2572 To Quebec, Summit, Fabyan, North Conway, Portland, Boston, New York (Steamer), Philadelphia, Baltimore, and thence by Steamer to Liverpool £28 16 6
£31 16 6
£36 16 6
2573 To Quebec, Gorham, Summit, Wells River, Springfield, New York (Rail), Philadelphia, Baltimore, and thence by Steamer to Liverpool £29 2 0
£32 2 0
£37 2 0
2575 To Quebec, Groveton, Fabyan, North Conway, Boston (E.R.R.), Providence, New Haven, New York (Rail), Philadelphia, Baltimore, and thence by Steamer to Liverpool £27 0 0
£30 0 0
£35 0 0

********** to be continued

Information For Tourists

to the

United States and Canada

The foregoing routes are specially arranged for the use of tourists and travellers who visit the United States and Canada for the purpose of seeing the principal cities and some of the finest or most characteristic scenery. A little information as to some of the places to be visited on the way may here be found acceptable.

July and August are the fashionable tourist months in the United States, but they are by no means the most favourable months during which to travel. September is believed to offer most attractions in the north, while Autumn or Spring (May) are the best seasons for California.

Generally speaking, hotel expenses in the United States and Canada are not in excess of what is charged in England, whilst the railway fares are much less. There are two classes of hotels in the United States, viz., those kept on the European plan, and those on the American plan. Hotels on the American plan are boarding-houses; the traveller is provided with a bedroom, has the use of the public rooms of the hotel, and takes his meals in the dining-room. These meals usually consist of breakfast (between seven and eleven), luncheon (between twelve and one), dinner (between four and seven), and supper (between eight and eleven). At each of these meals the traveller may select from the bill of fare any dishes he likes. No charge is made for lights or attendance. The usual charges at first-rate hotels of this kind are 3 to 5 dollars.

First-class railway tickets are available without limit as to time. As a rule there is only one class, bu on many lines 1st, end, and 3rd (or emigrant) tickets are issued, as in Europe. The holder of a first-class ticket is entitled to travel by express trains; he may break his journey as he pleases, and is admitted (on extra payment) to the parlour or sleeping cars. Second-class passengers may travel by express, but their tickets are limited as to the time within which they may be used, and they are not admitted to parlour cars. Dining-room cars are attached to many trains (charge for dinner usually 75 cents). "Eating stations" are met with at suitable intervals. Baggage--100 lbs. are always allowed free, and no charge is made for checking or storing. On handing over the baggage to the baggage master at the "depôt" (or station) he attaches a brass check to it and presents a duplicate check to the owner. It is returned only on presentation of this check. A baggage agent generally collects these checks on the train, and on payment of a small fee undertakes to forward the baggage to any part of the town. Omnibuses (50c.) generally await the arrival of each train to convey passengers to the hotels.


Quebec is the oldest city in the Dominion. It was founded in 1608, by Champlain, and captured by General Wolfe in 1759. It consists of a Lower Town (the principal place of business, with Exchange, Post Office, &c.) And an upper town, strongly fortified. The first walk should be to the Citadel, on Cape Diamond, considered to be impregnable. From it can be seen the monument on Abraham Plains, erected in honour of Wolfe and Montcalm.

A visit should be paid to the Montmorenci Falls, 9 miles from Quebec (fall 250 feet), and to the "Natural Steps," three-quarters of a mile above them.

There are two lines of Railway to Montreal, viz., the Grand Trunk Railway on the south side, and the North Shore Railway on the north side of the St. Lawrence, and a magnificent service of Passenger Steamers plies on the river daily.

Excursion to the Saguenay.--The steamer leaves Quebec in the morning. Below Orleans island, the St. Lawrence is never less than 10 miles wide, and its water salt. At Grosse Isle - (24 miles) is quarantine station for immigrants. Then follow Crane, Goose, and other islands. Steamer stops first at Murray Bay (Malbaie, 90 miles) and then crosses over to Rivière du Loup or Fraserville, where she remains during the night, the passengers sleeping on board.

Early in the morning she crosses over to Tadousac (20 miles), at the mouth of Saguenay, and proceeds for 60 miles up that remarkable river, which runs through a cleft in the rocks, with walls rising on either side perpendicularly to a height of 1500 feet. Among the remarkable precipices pointed out are Cape Eternity, Trinity Rock, and Statue Point. At Ha Ha Bay the steamer stops and then returns to Rivière du Loup, which is reached in the evening. Visit the Waterfall, one mile from village. The journey from Rivière du Loup to Quebec or Montreal can be performed by Rail.

Montreal, the principal city of the Dominion of Canada, is situated on an island of the St. Lawrence, at the mouth of the Ottawa. The name of the Indian village which stood on its site was Hochelaga, and the first European settlers arrived there in 1542. A majority of the inhabitants are of French descent and Roman Catholics. Mount Royal lies at the back of the town, and fine quays line its river front. A magnificent railway bridge, named in honour of Queen Victoria, and 9194 feet in length, crosses the St. Lawrence.

The following are objects of interest:--St. Paul's-street, the chief business thoroughfare, on the river (Custom-house); Exchange, in Sacrament-street; Victoria-square (St. Partick's Hall); Charles-street (Post-office); Place d'Armes (Cathedral Notre Dame, with two towers, each 220 feet high, Seminary of St. Sulpice, several banks); Notre Dame-street (Court-house); Bonsecour's Market (ascend the dome); Champs de Mars (Geological Museum); Christ Church (Protestant), with a spire 220 feet high; St. Andrew's Church, a miniature copy of Salisbury Cathedral; New Catholic Cathedral and Hospital, in Dorchester-street. Drive round Mount Royal, past McGill's College and Mount Royal Cemetery.

Montreal To Ottawa.-- By rail direct or by water and rail. For latter route, proceed from Bonaventure-street Station, by rail, to Lachine (10 miles), an old village, the old headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company. Steamer up Lake St. Louis, an enlargement of the St. Lawrence, past St. Ann's, and through the bridge of the Grand Trunk Railway, up the Ottawa and through Two-Mountain Lake, to Carillon, at the foot of the lower rapids (50 miles).--Here leave the steamer and proceed by rail to Grenville (12 miles), where another steamer awaits. Steamer up the river to Ottawa (50 miles) through a densely-wooded country, and past L'Original and Buckingham.

Ottawa, the new capital of the Dominion, occupies a most picturesque position on the Ottawa river, which forms the Chaudière Falls, and is spanned by a suspension bridge. High on Barrack Hill, the new Parliament House, Government Offices, and the Queen's Printing House, most imposing blocks of buildings in the Gothic style, very different from the Capitols of American cities. Observe the lumber "shoots" on the river.

Ottawa To Kingston.--Rail 113 miles. After a ride of three hours you reach Prescott, on the St. Lawrence (54 miles), then follow the left bank of that river as far as Kingston, where it debouches from Lake Ontario. Kingston, the old capital of Canada, was founded in 1783, on the site of Fort Frontenac of the French. It is fortified.

Kingston To Montreal.-- By the St. Lawrence. 170 miles in about 10 hours. The boat starts about four in the morning, passing through the thousand Islands (actually about 1800), which extend for a distance of 40 miles. You then reach Prescott, and the American town of Ogdensburg, nearly opposite. Below these towns Albert Bridge spans the river. It is 15,500 feet in length, and cost £800,000 to build. Then begins the most interesting and exciting part of this journey, viz., "Shooting the Rapids," a feat first attempted in 1840, after the course taken by lumber-rafts had been watched. The rapids are avoided by canals, but these are used only by vessels going up the stream. The rapids known as the Gallopes are encountered first; the Long Sault Rapids are the longest; but the Lachine Rapids, which are reached after having crossed the lake of St. Louis, close to Montreal, are the most formidable of all.


Shooting The Rapids of the St. Lawrence.

Mr. Wm. Morris, Author of Letters sent Home, Canada and the United States, writes as follows:

"My object in returning to Montreal was that I might go from thence, by the Grand Trunk, to Brockville, and, taking one of the river boats there, make the journey of the river from above the first Rapid to below the last one; closing the trip by sailing under the Victoria Bridge at Montreal. It was now some eighteen days since I first set foot in Montreal. Since then I had travelled some thousands of miles over North American continent, and I had seen many strange and wonderful sights. But I found Montreal quite as taking on my second as on my first visit. Its fine streets and noble buildings were as attractive as ever. Some of my fellow voyagers by the Moravian were still hanging about the hotels, but the majority of them had gone on into the country. On going to the Allan office, I found that the Circassain left Quebec for Liverpool on Saturday morning at 10, and that there was only just time for me to get to Brockville, and, taking the boat in the morning, return to Montreal by the evening, and then catch the Circassian by the Mail train by the Grand Trunk Railway. Indeed, the time was so close that I was strongly recommended to give up the idea of shooting the more distant Rapids, and to confine myself to doing the Lachine Rapid, which is situate only a few miles from Montreal. But I was too much bent on doing the whole of the river journey to be dissuaded from my project. So, after renewing my acquaintance with the Cathedral and several other places of interest, and having sent my baggage on to Quebec, I started for Brockville, which place I reached late at night.

What can I say of the river journey from Brockville to Montreal? I know not how to describe it. There is little or no difficulty in describing many things one meets with, both home and abroad, for the simple reason that little more is required than the reproduction before the mind's eye of some object which has been actually seen by the bodily eye of those for whom the account or description is intended. Along the banks of the river I saw some Indians and their wigwams. In England, we have a marauding people, called gipsies, who live, or did live, some years ago, before county policemen were so common, and highway boards were thought of, under canvas tents, along the sides of our country lanes and bye-ways. The Indian wigwam is higher and more conical in shape than the gipsy's tent, but otherwise very like it. The Indian has broader shoulders, is of a more squat build, is less lithe in his movements, and more dreamy and indolent in his looks than the gipsy. He has a piercing eye--the eye of the hunter, but his brown and shaggy unkempt hair drops down from his head in straight lines. When I tell you that with these and sundry other little differences, the North American Indian is very like the English gipsy, I think you may form some idea of what an Indian and his wigwam are like. I saw wild fowl on the lake, and I have ate of trout and salmon from the Canadian rivers and lakes. I tell you the colour of the feathers of the fowl, and the taste of the flesh of the fish, and you at once know as much about the whole matter as I myself do. But how am I to tell you of the appearance of the River St. Lawrence and its lakes on a fine day? Around the head of Christ we place a nimbus, and we feel at once what it means, and know that it expresses more than any mere combination of letters could express. But we cannot understand an English summer's day enclosed within a circle of glory. A French writer once referred to November as the month in which Englishmen hung and drowned themselves. We want no one to interpret the meaning of that saying. Since I first set foot on Canadian soil, I have noticed the sky overhead to be of one clear colour, without a speck of cloud upon it: It was so this morning. I have seen the water of the lakes look so pure, that it glistened like a mirror: It was so this morning. And so clear that you could look twenty or thirty feet down through it. And the air so invigorating, and yet so soft, that you could feel it bracing you up, until you felt you could snort like a war-horse: It was so this morning when I stepped on board the river boat, and proceeded down the stream to "shoot the rapids." It was so until close upon the time of my returning a second time to Montreal, when the night set in with singular abruptness, clothing all things in darkness.

"The boat was crowded in every part. There was a regular motley company on board. The judge and his family, the lawyer, the merchant, and the man of business, the shopman and the artizan[sic] many of them with their wives and children were there. The excursion season had now set in, and day after day, I was told, railway cars and steamboats were crowded to their utmost capacity with pleasure seekers and tourists doing the "All Round Route." There were some on board who were doing the journey that they might gratify those feelings which lay deepest in them, and made them what they were to themselves, as their outward acts made them what they were to others. There were those who were doing the journey because it was the thing to do it, and because others did it. It was a mercy that there were some of all sorts on board, for had they been all lovers of nature--if all could have drunk in the great and matchless lesson of that journey, the saloons would have remained empty, and the fore part of the boat would have become so inconveniently crowded as to occasion serious inconvenience, if not danger. Let us understand our position. The distance by rail from Brockville to Montreal is 125 miles, and by river about 140. Between the two points, looking upon the river in its ordinary course, it would be difficult, if not impossible, to tell in which direction the river ran, so quiet and placid is its surface. But between these two points there is an actual descent of two hundred and twenty-one feet nine inches; not distributed over the whole distance of 140 miles, but confined actually within a distance of 41 miles, situate at eight different points between the two extreme ones. For instance, about 20 miles below Brockville we reach a point where, in a distance of two miles, the river descends eight feet. And here we have the first Rapid, known as the Gallopes Rapid. Steamers and other vessels shoot down this Rapid, and indeed down all of them, right on to Montreal. But no power under the control of man can send them up the Rapid. To get over this difficulty, canals are cut alongside the river's bank, taking in the extreme length of the Rapid, and, being furnished with the necessary locks, raise the vessel to the required height to send it out free and unfettered above the head of the Rapid, which it is thus enabled to escape. These canals, which range in length from thee quarters of a mile to eleven miles and a-half, are marvels both of engineering skill and commercial enterprise. By their means, the whole course of the river St. Lawrence is rendered navigable, both to and fro. The boundary line parting Canada from the United States runs up the centre of the river St. Lawrence from Cornwall, 67 miles above Montreal, and right through all the great lakes to the North-western shore of Lake Superior. The canals being on the Canadian side of the river, has had the effect, I am told, of causing some amount of international disputes and jealousy. I need hardly add that where the Rapids are, there the river is partially blocked up by huge rocks, the tops of which sometimes reach to within a few feet of the surface of the river, troubling the water very much, causing it to hiss, and boil, and dash about, and leap, and dance like mad, to add to the grim grandeur of the scene. To guide the vessel as it follows its downward course over the Rapid, between the rocks in safety, demands an actual knowledge of every foot in the river's course on the part of the helmsman, and even when the vessel is in the hands of such a person, the danger is sufficient to create intense excitement, if not some little anxiety. The first four Rapids we reached and passed were unimportant, and excited but little interest, the most considerable of them being only four miles long, with a fall of eleven feet six inches. But at length, after we had journeyed about fifty miles, we neared Long Sault Rapid, which extends for eleven and a-half miles, with a fall of forty-eight feet. Steam was kept on till the boat had reached the head of the Rapid, when it was shut off, and being directed into its proper course, was carried along by the force of the rushing waters, as a straw would be carried down a gutter stream after a thunder-storm, the men at the helm, of course, keeping it in its proper course. But still there seemed a something wanting. It was quite clear that many of those who were Shooting the Rapids for the first time, were somewhat disappointed, whilst others seemed to know that there was more to come yet. In the Long Sault Rapid there are many islands, some of them from one to two miles in length, by from fifty to a hundred yards wide. These were under cultivation, and had cattle grazing on them, and looked very picturesque. Other islands were mere rocks or resorts for wild fowl. On other islands which we passed we very frequently noticed fishing parties, who were evidently making a jolly time of it; living in tents, and cooking and eating their fish and game on the spot. Perhaps the most striking feature in the Long Sault Rapid was to watch for the boat's passing the extreme points of the islands, and, bringing the eye suddenly upon the boiling surge of the troubled waters as they eddied past, seeing what our position really was. From Cornwall, at the foot of Long Sault Rapid, we went on a further distance of thirty miles, to Coteau-du-Lac, which brought us to the head of the Cedars, Split Rock, and Cascade Rapids. We first knew of something unusual being at hand by the steam being shut off, and the lazy way in which the boat moved along over the glistening and unruffled waters. Up on the pilot-house, a couple of storeys above where I was standing in the prow of the vessel, several men were very busily engaged, and the creaking and straining of ropes and chains could be heard all over the boat. Looking back, along the sides of the boat, on to the lake beyond, the eye rested on a scene of what, without profanity, may be called heavenly grandeur. There was not a breath of air, nor a ripple on the water to break its silvered face, nor a cloud in the heavens to shut out the glorious blue sky; the banks of the river, and the islands near, were decked with trees, clothed in their richest foliage, the cedars and the pines, with their many hues and shades of green forming a border line around both heaven and earth. It was a scene that made one feel as though standing in abject nakedness before the throne of the Lord of Creation. To stand there was to be like the sparrow spell-bound and fascinated under the eye of the hawk. When, in an instant, without a moment's warning, the deck of the boat seemed to fall from under my feet, the prow of the boat seemed as though diving down into an abyss, the stern rising fairly out of the water. I could feel that the breath of every soul around me was suspended. The boat was diving down with almost lightning speed, and big tears were to be seen trickling down many a sunburnt face. I felt that the tears had burst from my own eyes, through the sheer excitement of the moment. The engines were still, but I could hear the breathing of the men at the rudder and the wheel, as they did their work in the pilot-house above. We were now fairly on the series of rapids known as the Cedars and the Coteau-du-Lac. Looking over the bulwarks of the boat, nothing was to be seen but the boiling, dancing surge; over the top of which the boar was gliding like a bird. This continued for nearly half-an-hour, the distance traversed being a little over eleven miles, the total fall in the level in that distance being eighty-two feet six inches. But this fall is not gradual all the way; it, in fact, is very irregular. Sometimes it was sufficiently steep to shoot the boat along like an arrow, and, at other times, eddying currents would seem to hold, and check, and play with it in its course. When the speed was the fastest, the danger was greatest, for at such times, on looking over the bulwarks, the heads of the rocks, which were baying the water back above, were clearly to be seen, and frequently appeared to be only a foot or two under the water. At the bottom of the rapids, the Ottawa river enters the St. Lawrence, the difference in the colour of the two waters being so marked that even after they have fairly met, you might see them running along side by side for several miles, until they become mixed with each other. About fifty miles from this point up the river is situate the capital of United Canada. Formerly, when Canada was divided into two provinces, a line down the river Ottawa marked the boundary between Upper and Lower Canada. St. Ann's Rapids, which are slightly out of the course of the St. Lawrence, on the Ottawa river, is the scene of Tom Moore's well-known 'Canadian Boat Song.'

"At length we neared the Lachine Rapids, the last of the series, situate 16 miles above Montreal. Opposite the village of Lachine, on the south side of the river, there is another village, called Caughnawaga, inhabited by Indians. A somewhat celebrated and well-known Indian lives at this village. When approaching the village our boat drew up somewhat towards the shore, and the steam being shut off we came to a pause in our course. Looking out to see the cause of this, I could see a frail bark, two men being seated in it, one of them using a long paddle, which he dipped into the water alternately on either side, making towards us. This man was the old Indian pilot, named Baptiste, who for over 40 years had piloted the vessels of the Canadian Navigation Company down the Lachine Rapids. He is now over 60 years of age, but still possesses wonderful agility and power. It was quite a sight to see him paddling his canoe across the stream, and when he seized hold of and climbed up the rope let down the side of the vessel, and jumped on deck, we gave him a hearty cheer. Directly he had taken his place in the pilot-house, steam was again put on, and we shortly after commenced the descent. These Rapids are not so long as some of the others we had passed down, but they are counted far more dangerous and difficult to navigate. And this I could easily understand when I saw the boat being turned, and, as it were, twisted, about in various directions, whilst going its downward course. There was, in fact, a regular dodging of the rocks which lay embedded in the river, and the tops of which were clearly to be seen from the deck. Several times it appeared as though nothing could save us from going on to a rock but slightly in front of us, but in an instant the vessel's course was turned aside, and we passed it in safety.

"In due course the Victoria Bridge came in view. And then we passed under it, and then for the third time I found myself at Montreal. But my time here was to be shorter now even than on either of the previous occasions, for in an hour or so the mail train was to leave for Quebec, carrying the English mail, and by that train it was necessary I should travel in order to catch the Circassian, on board of which I had secured a berth for the homeward voyage across the Atlantic."

Montreal to Lake Champlain, Lake George, and New York

Montreal to Rouse's Point (49 miles in 2¼ hours). Across Victoria Bridge. At St. John's (27 miles) you reach the Richelieu river, which follow upwards, as far as Rouse's Point, where it issues from Lake Champlain.

Lake Champlain is no less than 180 miles in length, and varies in breadth from 1 to 10 miles. On the east it is bounded by the green hills of Vermont, on the west by the Adirondack wilderness, rising in Mount Marcy to a height of 5467 feet, and holding out great inducements to the sportsman and pedestrian. This fine sheet of water is navigated as far as Ticonderoga (106 miles). At Plattsburg, the first halting place, was fought the battle of lake Champlain, on sea and land, 1814. Port Kent is one of the landing places for visitors to Adirondacks. Burlington, opposite, is the seat of Vermont University. At Ticonderoga, where the steamer is left, may still be seen the ruins of a fort, one of the first places captured during the revolutionary war.

A stage branch line runs from here, past the falls of the Horicon to Lake George (3 miles).

Lake George is smaller than Lake Champlain, but superior to it, if possible, in natural beauty. The steamer sails the entire length (36 miles) to Caldwell, a village where the traveller may remain for the night.

Caldwell to Saratoga (31 miles). By a picturesque stage-road to Glensfalls, on the River Hudson; thence by rail in an hour to Saratoga, perhaps the most fashionable spa in America, its ordinary population of 8000 souls rising sometimes to 30,000 during the season (July and August). Saratoga offers nothing except an opera house, ball-rooms, and others places of amusement, for although the Adirondacks are within a short distance (Luzerne or Hadley, near a charming little lake can be reached in an hour's ride by rail), the immediate vicinity of the place is void of interest.

Saratoga to Troy (32 miles in one hour by rail). Latter part of ride delightful, the line passing down the Hudson river, which it crosses near the mouth of the Mohawk and the Cohoes Falls.

Troy, a city of 50,000 inhabitants, occupies an alluvial plain on the left bank of the Hudson, overlooked by cliffs. The suburb of West Troy is opposite. Mount Olympus (200 feet in height) to the north of the town, and Mount Ida to the west of it, should be ascended.

From Troy by rail to Albany (every hour), or cross over to West Troy (where there is a United States Arsenal), and travel thence by horse-car to Albany (6 miles) every 15 minutes.

Albany, 70,000 inhabitants, was founded by the Dutch, in 1614, and was known up to 1664 as Willemstadt. Since 1798 it is the capital of New York State. The Erie Canal terminates here.

New York can be reached from Albany by rail (143 miles) in four hours.

Catskill Mountains.--48 miles in about five hours, to the Mountain House. Start early.

Albany to Catskill.--37 miles, rail, in 1¼ hours. The line follows the left bank of the Hudson. The only town of importance is Hudson, 13,000 inhabitants (33 miles). Athens is opposite. At Catskill Station, cross by ferry.

The Catskill Mountains from part of the Appalachian mountain system, and attain a height of nearly 4000 feet. A stage runs from Catskill-landing to the Mountain House (three hours), whence there is a magnificent view of Hudson Valley, with the mountains of New England rising beyond it.

Down the Hudson to New York.--123 miles in about nine hours. The Hudson river was discovered by Henry Hudson in 1608, and its scenery rivals that of the Rhine, and in some respects surpasses it. It is the first river, too, which was navigated by a steamer (Fulton, 1807).

Catskill Mountain House to Catskill-Landing--12 miles by stage in about two hours. The boat passes about 11 a.m.

Down the Hudson to New York--111 miles in 6½ hours. The upper part of the Hudson, as far as Newburg and Fishkill-landing (51 miles) is distinguished by loveliness rather than by grandeur. The principal places passed thus far are Rhinebeck-landing (21 miles), with Rondout and its cement manufactories opposite; and the important city of Poughkeepsie (36 miles), 22,000 inhabitants, backed by Vassar Female College, on a commanding hill.

Below Fishkill is the gorge through the "Highlands," which extends to Peekskill, a distance of 17 miles. Butter Hill (1529 feet) rises on the right, Bull Hill opposite. West Point (60 miles), the famous military academy of the United States. Anthony's Nose (1128 feet) and the Dunderbury are passed beyond, and at Peekskill (68 miles), opposite to which is Caldwell-landing, you debouch upon Tappan Lake, and enlargement of the Hudson, in places four miles wide. Croton (74 miles) lies at the mouth of the Croton river, which supplies New York with an almost unlimited supply of water. Sing Sing (70 miles) is a favourite suburban residence of the New Yorkers. Then follows Tarry Town (85 miles), with its old Dutch church, attended by Washington Irving, whose residence (Sunnyside, at Irvington) is pointed out. The "Palisades," a range of cliffs of columnar basalt, rise opposite. At Hastings the river again grows narrower; and having passed Yonkers (94 miles) and the conventual school on Mount Vincent, you find yourself within the limits of the city of New York (111 miles). During the revolutionary war this part of the Hudson was defended by Fort Washington and others, all of which have disappeared without leaving a trace behind.

New York, the capital of the state of the same name, and the largest city of the American continent, occupies the larger portion of Manhattan Island, at the mouth of Hudson River, which bounds it on the west, whilst an arm of the sea, known as East River, separates the city from Long Island. The width of these rivers nowhere exceeds a mile. Opposite to New York, on Long Island, are Brooklyn, Williamsburg, and other places which must be looked upon as suburbs of the city, and the same applies to Jersey City and Hoboken, on the western bank of the Hudson or North River.

The harbour of New York is one of the finest in the world. Its entrance, at Sandy Hook, is 18 miles from the "battery," at the southern extremity of Manhattan Island.

New York was founded in 1614, by the Dutch, who called it New Amsterdam. Its name was changed to that of New York in 1664, when it fell into the hands of the English. At that time it scarcely numbered 2000 inhabitants. It boasts now of a population of 942,377, or, including its suburbs, of 1,500,000 inhabitants.

New York to Newport (150 miles) by Fall River steamers, starting daily at 4 or 5 p.m., reaching Newport very early in the morning. The steamer passes up East River and through Hell Gate into the Long Island Sound. This first part of the journey most interesting.

Newport (Rhode Island) is one of the most ancient cities of the Union (founded 1637), and up to its evacuation by the British it exceeded New York in commercial importance. It is now one of the most fashionable sea-side resorts.

Newport to Boston, 68 miles in two hours, by Old Colony and Newport Railway. You cross channel separating Rhode Island from mainland, and reach Fall River (19 miles), an important manufacturing city of Massachusetts. The line passes through a pleasant country, with numerous manufacturing towns.

Alternative Route, New York to Boston, by rail. You pass Newhaven (73 miles), the largest city of Connecticut, the seat of Yale College, one of the best known universities in the States, and the beautiful city of Hartford.

Boston, the capital of New England, is the most European-looking city in the United States, and may fairly boast of its educational institutions, its refinement, and wealth. The city proper occupies a peninsula, which is connected by bridges with the suburban towns of Cambridge, Charlestown, East Boston, and South Boston. Population, 342,000 souls.

The suburbs of Boston are charming.

...to be continued...


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© Marjorie P. Kohli, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 1997-2007
Last updated: February 14, 2007 and maintained by Marj Kohli